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Full text of "The cutters' practical guide to the cutting of ladies' garments.."






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THE CUTTERS' 



PRACTICAL CUIDE 



TO THE CUTTING OF 



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llll I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I 

-By W, •©. F. IKiiiciiit. 

■■ I H I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I 1 1 I ■ 1 I I III I I 11 11 I I ■ ■ 

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PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY 
THE JOHN WILLIAMSON COMPANY, LIMITED, 93 & 94 DRURY LANE. W.C 




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PRINTED BY THE JOHN WILLIAMSON COMPANY, LIMITED, 
98 & 94 DRURY LANE, LONDON, W.C. 






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The material changes in gentlemen's garments are so gradual and comparatively 
slight, that a good work on their production may continue to be of practical value for well 
nigh a generation. The case stands very differently with Ladies' Garments, which 
change — very materially so in some cases — every season ; necessitating a new work for 
their production every two, or at most, three years. Apart from this necessity in point 
of new styles and fashions, many inquiries have been made lately as to whether we had a 
work on Ladies' Garments by the Cutters' Practical Guide System, and if not, whether 
we intended preparing such. The work we now introduce being based on the " Guide " 
System, it is thus prepared to meet a two-fold want or demand — an instructor and guide 
to the production of all the new and popular styles in tailor-made garments ; and also the 
demand for such a work by the Practical Guide System. 

The work itself will bear testimony to its scope, and the way in which every current, 
as well as new style of Ladies' Tailor-made Garment is treated and illustrated. Here we 
have the systems for producing the garments, each illustrated by beautifully engraved 
diagrams ; and there is further, the finished garments, illustrated upon artistically en- 
graved figures. The work thus presents a completeness, which renders it an invaluable 
acquisition to the Ladies' cutter. Should the inexperienced or timid cutter hesitate to 
use his own productions by these systems, our arrangements for supplying Special Cut 
Patterns of any style of ladies' garment— if the style can be conveyed to us — at a very 
nominal price, will meet the difficulty, at the same time allow him to compare our pattern 
with his own production. 

We doubt not but this new and latest Work will fully sustain the character we have 
already attained by the Works now being published at the Tailor and Cutter Office. 

The John Williamson Company Limited. 




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The object we set before us in this work, is the 
preparation of a Complete Instructor and (iuide in 
the production of all Ladies' Garments which may be 
classed as " tailor-made," not only as regards the cut, 
the fit and the making, but embracing also all the new, 
the current and the popular styles, in all their different 
classes and departments — an Instructor to the inex- 
perienced, and a (iuide to the experienced cutter. 
While tailoring has been largely augmented during 
recent years by Ladies' Garments, this comparatively 
new branch is capable of very considerable further 
development, which can. only be accomplished by 
cutters generally setting themselves to study and 
acquire the Art of Cutting and getting up Ladies' 
• iarments — an art in Tiiost respects widely different 
from the production of gentlemen's garments, and 
which must receive special and attentive study before 
success can be possible. This work will supply the 
necessary materials in every detail for such study. 
Starting at the beginning, with the anatomy of the 
female figure, we proceed step by step till we embrace 
every point connected with the production of Ladies' 
tailor-made garments, in all their styles and varieties, 
so that by application and perseverance, any cutter of 
ordinary tact and intelligence, can, through the medium 
of the following pages, master this noble art, and so 
enable him, as cutter, to take any position in a high- 
class trade : or, as master, to develop his trale by the 
making of ladies" garments, turned out with such fit, 
taste and style, as will be well nigh certain to ensure 
success. 

Such, briefly, is the aim and object of this work. 
This must be a continuous study on the part of the 
cutter, for fashions change so rapidly, one style succeeds 
another so speedily, that unless he is on the alert, he 
will soon drop back into the second rate : for it is 
well known that ladies' make a study of dress ; they 
not only know what is the latest style, but they also 
understand every application of art, and very often 



some of the laws of science. They will often tell yon 
where the seams of their garments must be placed, and 
they know the effect certain styles of ornamentation 
will have on the body ; and woe to the reputation of 
the man who leads them in the wrong direction ; and 
although we do not wish to impute that, with all ladies, 
dress is the one end and object of their life, yet they 
study it, they read about it, they write about it, they 
talk about it, they think about it, they attend public 
institutions to look at it, they work for it, aye, and 
often deny themselves the common necessaries of life to 
procure it. We do not condemn all this : our object 
is rather to show the cutter who hopes to become first- 
class at this branch of tailoring, the necessity there is 
for application and study, to become acquainted with 
science in all its teachings, so as to apply it to his 
calling ; to thoroughly unde]"stand the application of 
art in all its fine studies, so as to utilize its lessons to 
the adorning of the female form ; to understand the 
phases of practical tailoring, which enables form to be 
introduced into what was before flat and lifeless. We 
might proceed almost indefinitely to show how know- 
ledge was power in this direction, but we will take the 
various phases in their order, and leave the student to 
follow up the study of many of the subjects which we 
may only be able to touch lightly in dealing with them. 
To understand our subject thoroughly, the first subject 
we must deal with is 

Anatomy, 

A subject deserving of far more attention from tailors 
than it receives. It is a study which recalls to us the 
laws of our 1 )ivine Creator when he fashioned our bodies. 
It is not necessary that our readers spend months 
or years acquiring the names of all the bones of the 
human figure : what we want them to understand is, 
that a bone of such a shape is in such a position, and 
that its movements are in certain directions ; that it is 
surrounded by certain muscles which develop in cer 



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THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




tain directions : and, having acquired this knowledge, 
the cutter will be able to distinguish between the pos- 
sible and the impossible in nature, and so lay the 
foundation for formulating sound systems. It will 
enable him to understand the outline of the form he 
has to clothe, independent of such artificial appliances 
as bustles, crinolines, &c, &c. 

It teaches the symmetry of the body, and shows how 
the left side is an almost exact reproduction of the 
right only in reverse. 

It teaches where growth is possible and where impos- 
sible ; how certain bones always remain near the sur- 
face of the skin, and how when the body develops 
either fat or muscle, where the increment is placed, and 
how it affects the surrounding parts. 

It teaches the movements of limbs, where the three 
different joints are to be found, viz.,* the gliding, the 
universal or ball socket and the hinge joint. 

But the study that applies more particularly to this 
work, is what we may turn comparative anatomy, by 
which we may realize the difference between the male 
and female form, and as we have treated of anatomy in 
Part I of the " Cutter's Practical Guide," we will sup- 
pose the readers of this work have made themselves, to 
a certain extent, acquainted with the general anatomy 
the male form. On 

Figure 1, 

The female skeleton is illustrated, and on figure 2 the 
male. By comparison we at once notice the smallness 
of the ribs and the largeness of the hips, whilst the 
space between the chest and pelvis (hips) is much 
wider in woman than in man. The collar bones are 
weaker in woman than in man, and are differently 
shaped, which remark applies to all the bones of the 
superior extremities.! 

The ribs of the female are not so arch-like nor so 
strong as in the male. 

When the bones are quite characteristic, the male 
are more arched than the famale ribs, especially be- 
tween the fifth and ninth on either side. It is there 
that the female ribs are flattened, and it is in this situa- 
that the female waist exists. In man, when strongly 
formed, the ribs continue fully arched, much lower 
down, placing his waist between the last rib and the 
top of the haunches. 

In man, the back is strong ; in woman, the loins. 

But probably the point wherein the tailor will learn 
the best lesson is the hips, as it will soon force itself to 



* These were fnlly described in Part I of the " Cutter's 
Practical Guide." 

t Scapula, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, carpel, roeta- 
^carpel and digital bones. 




his notice in practice how very much extra the hips are 
developed in the female form than the male. Another 
reference to Figures 1 and 2 will readily illustrate this : 
of the male pelvis we shall not particularise, but of the 
female we wish to call attention to the fine oval form 
it presents as compared with the male, the great breadth 
of the haunch bones, &c. It is this great breadth of 
the hips in woman, that the ladies' tailor has to observe 
and make provision for, and which, together with the 
other peculiarities of the female skeleton, will open his 
eyes to the reason for many of the effects he has to 
deal with. Important as is the study of anatomy as 
a foundation upon which to build up a scientific and 
practical knowledge, we do not wish to overlook the 
undisputed fact, that the skeleton bears but an indis- 
tinct resemblance to the outside, the muscles and flesh 
formation having much to do with that. But a little 
study will soon inform us where and how these muscles 
develop, and as we know the bones never really alter 
their actual forms (though they may seem to do so by 
the condition of the surrounding muscles) and conse- 
quently a knowledge of the skeleton formation is the 
very best foundation we can possibly have. In 

Figure 3 and 4, 

We have illustrations showing the proportions < f man 
and woman, taken from a manual of artistic anatomy 
by Robert Knox, M.D., F.R.K.E., which still further 
emphasizes the lessons we learnt from the skeleton. 
The shoulders are small, the circumference of the chest 
is increased by the development of the breasts, the extra 
size of the hips and thighs, and lastly the softness of 
outline which seems to hide every trace of the skeleton. 
and even tones down and in many cases altogether 
hides the muscle development which is so clearly marked 
in man. 

We cannot close this section on anatomy, without 
referring to one of the best works published in modern 
times by J. Bononi, F.R.A.S., M.S.B.A., entitled. 
Proportions of the Human Figure and from which the 
following diagrams and quotations of relative propor- 
tions of the human figure are taken. 

Amongst the various difficult questions which are 
always cropping up in connection with our art is : 
What is proportion ? and on this topic we give the 
definition of proportion as laid down by Virtrivius. 
" Proportion is the commensuration of the various con- 
stituent parts with the whole, on the existence of which 
symmetry is found to consist." As, for instance, the 
human frame is divided into four equal parts by very 
distinctly marked divisions in its structure and outward 
form. See 



_ -(a^gg ^Pi^,. 




Figure 5. 

Firstly. From the crown of the head to a line drawn 
across the nipples, as at 3. Secondly. From the nipples 
to the pubis as from 3 to 4. Thirdly. From the pubis 
to the bottom of the patella, as from 4 to 5. Lastly. 
From the bottom of the patella to the sole of the foot 
as from 5 to 6. Again, four measures equal in them- 
selves, and likewise equal to those just described, and as 
well marked in the structure of the human body, are 
seen when the arms are extended horizontally, as in 

Figure 6. 

From the tip of the middle or longest finger to the 
bend of the arm is one-fourth of the height of the 
person, and from the bend of the arm to the pit of the 
neck is another fourth. Again, with regard to the face 
and hands. From the tip of the forehead to the chin 
is a tenth, and from the tip of the middle finger to the 
wrist is also a tenth. The face is also divided into 
three parts as shown, but this is not of so much im- 
portance to us as the relation the head bears to the 
body. It has so often been asserted that the head 
bears the relation of one-eighth of the total height of 
the body, that it will be as well if we examine this 
assertion thoroughly. For, although it undoubtedly is 
somewhat near the mark, yet at the same time, its re- 
liability is open to question in many cases, so we will 
take the relation this part bears to the body in some of 
the most noted statues, and in doing so, we divide the 
figure in the same manner as is done by artists, &c, 
and which is illustrated on 

Figure 7, 

Viz., heads, parts and minutes : the head is the dis- 
tance from the crown of the head to the chin, as at I, 
diagram 8. The parts are obtained by dividing the 
head into four equal divisions, and the minutes are 
obtained by dividing one of those divisions into twelve 
equal parts, and in this manner the true relation that 
each portion bears to the other is obtained. For ex- 
ample, let us suppose the head measures 9 inches, each 
part would be '2\, and each minute three-sixteenths of 
an inch. It will be as well for the student to note this 
as we shall have occasion to refer to this later on, but 
for the present will dealt with 

The Eight Heads Theory. 

The Apollo Sauroktonos, it is said, would be seven 
heads and nine minutes if he stood upright ; thus it 
will be seen in this case the height of the figure is three 
parts three minutes short of this standard ; or taking 



our division of inches as just worked out, would be 
over 7 inches short ot' eight heads. The Apollino of 
Florence, is said to be seven heads, three parts and five 
minutes high, thus, he only wants six minutes to com- 
plete the eight heads, or as we have been calculating 
l£ inches short. The Achilles of the Louvre is said to 
be seven heads, one part and eleven minutes ; thus, he 
wants nearly 4f inches to reach this standard. The 
Venus de Medicis is said to be seven heads, three parts 
and ten minutes ; thus, she only requires 2 minutes or 
| of an inch to complete eight heads. The Venus of 
the Capitol is said to measure seven heads, one part 
and four minutes ; thus she wants two parts and eight 
minutes, or six inches according to our calculation, to 
complete the eight heads, so by this test the eight heads 
theory fails, for these are the statues which have charm- 
ed the world for ages, and have been looked upon as 
masterpieces of art, or in other words 

The Highest Ideals of Proportion 

That sculptors have ever produced, and as every one of 
these fall short of the standard thus fixed, and in some 
cases by as much as G or 7 inches, it will be seen that 
from 7^ to 8 heads would be nearer the mark, certainly 
well insides the 8, as in no case do they reach eight 
heads. Again, the " length of arms equal the height " 
is equally erroneous, for out of K4 persons measured by 
Bononi, 54 were found to be long armed, 24 short 
armed, and ('» only whose arms were exactly equal to 
the height when extended. The greatest excess was in 
the case of a carpenter, whose arms exceeded height by 
5 inches. The greatest excess of height was in the 
case of an architect whose height exceeded the distance 
of his extended arms by 4 inches. Diagram (! shows 
the proportions of the male figure according to Bononi, 
whilst diagrams 7 and 8 shows 

The Relation of the Male & Female Forms 



The male figure is represented by the thick lines, 
and the measurements referring to it are placed on your 
right hand, whilst the female is represented by the fine 
lines, and the measurements on the left. The mea- 
surements are all calculated by heads, parts and minutes, 
and as marked represent the width in profile. The 
measurements of length, according to Virtrivius and 
Leonardo da Vinci, are relatively the same in both 
sexes, and are expressed in long horizontal lines run- 
ning through both the front and profile figures ; the 
letters by the side of the figures refer to the propor- 
tions of the relative parts, and which will be of value 
to the tailor in helping him to obtain measures, which 
for some reason or the other he is unable to take direct 
on the figure. 




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THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




To get the circumference of any part, add the width 
in profile (as given on figure 7 for the male, and figure 
9 for the female) and width in front (as illustrated on 
figure 8, the figures on the left side representing the 
female, and those on the right the male), together 
multiply them by 1^, and result will give approximate 
circumference. Examnle : male thigh profile, 3 parts 
(5 minutes, 3 parts = 6|, 3 minutes = ? 6 = 7^ front, 
3 parts 2 minutes, 3 parts = 6|, 2 minutes = f = 
~h "w + ^b = l^i 7 6> one an d a half times 14^ — 21^ 
thigh. Other parts may he treated in the same way. 

The following list of 

Measurements of Mrs. Langtry 

As compared with the Venus de Medicis will prove 
most interesting, and to the tailor who has a difficulty 
in getting certain measurements, they will prove most 
useful. kSome papers have been printing facts about 
the " perfect woman " physically considered. An 
artist supplies the comparative measurements of Mrs. 
Langtry and the Venus de Medecis, two types of the 
ancient and modern worlds. The height of these two 
beautiful women, the one in flesh and blood and the 
other in marble, happens to be the same, viz., five feet 
and seven inches. Hence the two may be taken as 
illustrating the difference of ideal physical proportions 
between the ancient and the modern. Whei'e and how 
the measurements of Mrs. Langtry were obtained we 
do not know, but we have no reason to doubt their 
correctness : — 



Mrs. Langtry. 

Height 

Across the shoulders - 
Bust ------ 



Arm ------ 

Thigh ----- 

Calf 

Neck - 

Hips ------ 

Length of leg - - - 

Waist 26 



5ft. 7in. 
15 inches 
36 „ 
12 „ 

24 „ 
12 „ 
12 „ 
45 „ 

25 ., 



Length of arm - 

Ankle - - - 

Foot - - - - 

Face - - - - 



26 

8 

8 



The Venus. 
5ft. 7in. 
16tj inches 
38" „ 
12 „ 
24 „ 
12 „ 

1 Qi 

io 2 „ 

-12 „ 

32 „ 

... ,, 

28 „ 



Doubtless there are millions of beautiful women who 
do not come very close to either, but taking Mrs. 
Langtry as a type, it appears that the modern runs less 
to shoulders and more to hips than the woman of 
antiquity. The ancient has also a decided advantage 
in the length of legs and arms and the size of neck and 
ankles On the whole, the modern woman appears to 
be less muscularly and more voluptuously formed than 




the ancient. It would be very easy to note a series of 
coincidences in these measures, such as the neck, arm, 
and calf being the same size, but they would be of little 
value as one part develops independently of another, so 
we pass on to deal with 

The Principles which Govern the Fitting 
of Garments, 

And which must form the foundation on which all 
systems are built. Putting these briefly, they consist 
of two, viz., size and form ; but inasmuch as that is 
rather indefinite, we prefer to classify them under seven 
heads, viz., (1) Length. (2) Width. (3) Height 
and size of neck. (4) Location and size of scye. 
(5) Provision for prominence and depressions such as 
blades, chest, &c. (6) Provision for muscular develop- 
ment. (7) Attitude. We will briefly touch on the 
principal features to be noted in dealing with these. 
That length should govern length, and width govern 
width, seems such a common sense rule, that we can 
hardly realize any other plan being adopted, and yet 
many cutters of the present day cling to the relic of a 
byegone age, fixing every point of the garment by 
division of width. Of the fixed points in the body two 
stand out prominently as starting points of great value 
to the cutter. These are the centre of back and the 
centre of front, and it will be well for every cutter to 
realise that at these parts the body is hollow, that is, 
there are decided depressions ; and to fix these points 
in their proper relation to each other is of great impor- 
tance in the garment. The only measure necessary to 
do this is the size or, if you will, the width round body 
plus an allowance for seams, ease, &c, and which for 
an ordinary garment made from medium material 
would run about 2 inches. Of the length, the nape 
is the starting point, it is the first prominence that 
shows itself at the back of the neck (the seventh 
vertebrae), and from which the hollow of waist and full 
length is obtained. In these two we have all that is 
contained in size ; but in form we have to provide for 
all the local prominences and depressions. Let us take 

The Height and Size of Neck. 

Here we have one of the most puzzling parts of the 
garment, or at least it is so to a large number. Why ? 
Simply because they try to provide for it either by 
divisions of the breast or divisions of the length, both 
being erroneous — we were going to say equally, but 
this is hardly so, for certainly a division of the length 
is preferable to the width although it is far from 
reliable, for we find tall people square shouldered, and 
vice versa ; whilst there is still another feature to be 



,2^ijSllk S.. 




borne in mind, viz., the thickness of the body at that 
part, for if the shoulders are largely developed in the 
front, the same or almost the same provision must be 
made as for square shoulders. Then there is still 
another feature, viz., that with short-necked figures 
the thickness of the neck from side to side is more 
than would be the case with the normal figure, whilst 
with the long-necked figure the diameter is less. Thi6 
we account for in the following way : In the short 
neck the muscles go up from the shoulder to the neck 
more suddenly, and so increase the diameter from side 
to side, and vice versa. Hence, the only mode of fixing 
the correct amount of height of neck in all cases is by 
direct measure, division of length or width being both 
erroneous, and will lead the cutter who trusts in them 
astray. 

The Location and Size of Scye. 

This may either be done by measuring from the 
centre of back or the centre of front : either method 
is reliable, though, for our own pare, we prefer mea- 
suring from the centre of front, as it is not affected by 
any variation in the allowance for making up or ease. 
But important as is the location of the front of scye — 
and it is one of the most important in the garment — 
there is another part which claims an equal share of 
attention, viz., the bottom, or what is usually termed 
the depth of scye. Tin's may be done in two ways : 
either by measuring from waist line upwards, or by 
getting a true horizontal line round the figure level 
with the bottom of scye with a tape, as illustrated on 
Figure 8, or by means of a square. We prefer the 
latter method, as the run of waist is often out of the 
true horizontal, and liable to be disturbed by fashion, 
such as when prominent bustles were worn, the length 
of waist being shortened behind. We do not consider 
the one-third of the circumference used in connection 
with a quantity for the height of neck equal to this 
direct measurement method, as the arm develops in 
various ways, and when the muscles develop it forms 
anything but a circle, and consequently such a method 
would provide too much length in the back section. 

Provision for Prominences & Depressions. 

This is made either by suppression, or what is 
equivalent, drawing in and pressing the fulness away. 
In practical tailoring there are three relative lengths : 
the hollow, the straight, and the round ; and if we 
remember the effect of those on the adjoining parts, 
we shall be materially helped in fitting the various 
forms. Thus, if we cut a hollow back seam, it will fit 
very snug down the centre, but as it will be brought 
to a straight line when on the figure, it will throw ful . 



ness ove" the blades, and if there are no sideseams, 
fulness round the back of scye. It is well to remem- 
ber that any deviatioi from the straight line for either 
back or front, must be made to provide for prominence 
or depression, the hollow giving extra room, the 
straight being normal, and the round producing short- 
ness on all the surrounding parts. Thus, it will be 
seen, there are no figures that require a round front 
edge to their garments, as there is a development of 
breast to be provided for in both male and female 
figures : though, if darts are not permissable, the round 
front edge may be cut, but it must always be manipu- 
lated back to the straight line if a proper fitting 
garment is desired. There is one point we must 
specially call attention to, viz., suppression at one part 
causes fulness both above and below, and the greater 
the suppression the greater the fulness, hence the waist 
must be suppressed with the view of providing for the 
prominence of blades, breasts, &c. Closely allied to 
this question of provision for prominence, &c, is 

Provision for Muscular Development. 

This can only be successfully met by a series of short 
sectional measures, starting from fixed points and 
groing over those parts where the muscles are likely to 
develop. In cutting from block patterns, provision 
may be made for this by the insertion of wedges, but it 
should be understood that the insertion of the wedge 
at any part will have a purely local effect, and, indeed, 
it is in this feature of it that its greatest value consists. 

In attitude we have a principle of the greatest im- 
portance, for unless the attitude of your customer is 
duly considered, it will be impossible to produce a fit. 
Many cutters meet this successfully by the aid of a 
trained eye ; but that takes some time to acquire. We 
prefer taking such measures as will of themselves indi- 
cate the relative lengths of back and front, which really 
constitute the balance. The attitude of the figure 
indicates whether they stoop or stand erect, and as 
every cutter knows what would fit the one would not 
fit the other, it becomes necessary to make it one of the 
special points to be observed, regulating in each case 
the relative lengths of back and front in accordance 
with the customer's requirements. These few ideas on 
the principles must suffice, so we now briefly describe the 

Measures and how to take them, for 

Jackets, Ulsters, Bodices, Habits, Dolmans 

&c. Figures 8 and 9, Plate 3. 

First, take the size round chest, rather easily, close 
up to the bottom of the arms on a level with 7, figure 
8 ; next take the waist at x, tightly ; next the 



lii£,_ 





w 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




level with 5, rather easily, always about 7 inches below 
waist. Now put the tape over shoulders and back 
under the bottom of armpit as shown on figure 8, and 
where the tape crosses the back in the true horizontal, 
make a mark at 2. Now take the depth of scye by 
measuring from W, 1 to 2 : then natural waist length 
from W 1 to 3 : then on to full length to 4, or, for 
Ulsters, to 6 ; next take the side length from 7 to 8, 
and continue on to 9 for long garments ; next take 
the width of back as from 10 to 11, continuing on to 
12 for the elbow, and 13 for the cuff ; now come to the 
side of the front of the figure, and measure from 14 to 
14 for the width across the chest, and then take a mea- 
sure over the prominence of bust from 15 to 15 ; next 
take the neck measure from W 1 of figure 1, to 16 V 
of figure 2 ; then, with the tape still held at W 1, mea- 
sure to the bottom of scye at 17, then to the prominence 
of bust at 18, on to the hollow of waist at 19, and if 
thought desirable to get the full length continue to 20, 
and for all full length garments continue to 21. Now 
take a measure from 2 of figure 1 up to 22 D, as indi- 
cated by dotted line on figure 8, and down to point 
17 of figure 2. If thought advisable, these measures 
may be supplemented by the width of shoulder, the size 
of the sleeve, &c. These measures apply to all body 
garments. 

For skirts, take the front length from 19 to 21, the 
side length from 8 to 9, the back length from 3 to 6, 
the size of waist and the size of hips. The same mea- 
sures will supply all that is necessary for trousers, 
though a measure taken from waist to the seat of a 
chair, when the lady is seated, will give a good guide 
for the length of leg. A measure from centre of back 
to wrist bone will invariably give the accurate length 
of leg. 

In addition to these, the tight size of knee, small, 
and calf must be obtained for breeches and gaiters. 

A measure taken round seat and knee, with the leg 
raised as in the act of riding, will be useful for Riding 
Trains. 

On the subject of measuring, a few words of advice 
may be useful. Avoid as far as possible nervousness, 
and, in every case, arrogance. Take your measures in 
a business-like way, and it will be found no lady objects 
to any measure being taken that is necessary for the 
propel' production of the garment she is ordering. It 
is not so much what is done, as how it is done, and if 
the cutter can oidy become possessed of that beginning 
and middle and end of all business qualifications, tact, 
he will find no difficulty in this respect. In measuring, 
the cutter should use his eyes well, remembering that 
measuring is only a means to an end, and that often 
measures can be taken by the eye, which will prove 
more valuable in achieving the desired end than any 



that can be got by the tape ; indeed, a trained eye is 
one of the most valuable acquirements the cutter can 
possess. 

With the view of supplying our readers with the 
average sectional measures of the various sizes, we 
append the following scale compiled from measures 
actually taken in our own practice. 



OheBt 


Waist 


Scye 
Depth 


Natrl 
Waist 


Neck 


Across 
Back 


Full 
length 
Meeve 


across 

Chest 


Front 
sholdr. 


Over 

Sholdr. 


24 


24 


^1 
°2 


11 


5 


±j? 


20 


5 


81 


11 


26 


24 


6 


m 


H 


H 


23 


51 


H 


12 


28 


23 


6i 


131 


6 


5 


25 


6 


10 


13 


3<) 


23 


7 


14 


4 


H 


26 


4 


101 


13| 


32 


23 
24 


~h 


1 Ufr 


7 


51 


26f 

271 


7 

n 


11 
111 


141 


34 


8 


15 


n 


15 


30 


26 


H 


: i5i 


H 


6 


2K 


8 


12 


15f 


38, 


271 


81 


15J, 


8 


61 


2H 


8| 


121 


161 


40 


29 


81 


15| 


H 


6| 


281 


8| 


13 


171 


42 


31 


8f 


! 15| 


9 


6| 


28^, 


H 


131 


18 


44 


32i 


9 


! 15| 


91 


7 


29 


94 


14 


18f 



Second Section. 



Ladies' Jackets. 

We now come to the more practical part of the work, 
and so apply the teachings of anatomy and experience 
to the various tailor-made garments which come within 
the cutter's range We will not occupy space with 
arguments on the merits or demerits of the various 
modes of cutting, such as by breast measure or direct 
measure ; as, to our mind, the variation in the develop- 
ment of the bust alone is quite sufficient to put the 
breast measure method entirely out of the sphere of 
practicability for ladies' garments, and when we know 
the variation in form met with at different ages, this is 
still further pronounced. The lady who has reached 
the condition of " fat, fair and forty," bears little re- 
semblance to the ideal type of womanly beauty to be 
met with amongst ladies of from twenty to thirty ; 
hence the only method in the adoption of which we 
can see a fair prospect of success, is by the aid of 






some system of shoulder or direct measures, using the 
measures taken on each customer to draft her pat- 
tern by. We know cases do often occur where for some 
reason or other, the cutter may not be able to take his 
measures direct, and when the only course open to him 
is to fall back upon the teachings of previous expe- 
rience, and use a set of measures taken on some other 
lady, using the natural waist lengths, chest, and length 
of sleeve as guides to help him in his selection. But as 
some of our readers may not have the result of previous 
experience to fall back upon, we have endeavoured to 
supply them with examples fi'om our own measure 
book, the scale on page 6 being an average of the 
sectional measures for the various chest measures, from 
24 to 44, and which, we doubt not will prove useful. 

' S. B. tight-fitting Jacket. 

We select a set of measures from our order book by 
which to draft out a plain, close-fitting, single-breasted 
Jacket ; they run as follows : S depth of scye, 15^ 
natural waist, 2."> full length, 1\ side length, across 
back, 18^ to elbow, 28 full length of sleeve, ~\ across 
chest, 8f across over busts, 1\ neck, 12 front shoulder, 
14 nape to prominence, 19 nape to hollow of waist in 
centre of front, 1(! over shoulder, 36 chest, 20 waist, 46 
hips. We apply these measures as follows : see 

Diagram 1, Plate 4. 

Commence by drawing lines 0, 22^, 2\, at right 
angles, and mark off to 2-f one-sixth of the natural 
waist (this may be varied higher or lower if desired to 
produce any given effect to the style. It will not affect 
the fit, as any variation would be compensated for in 
the shoulders of forepart) ; to 8 is the depth of scye, 
to 15^ is the natural waist length, to 22\ is 7 
inches below the waist to find the level of the hips, 
to 25 is the full length of jacket required, plus seams 
(i inch). Draw lines at right angles to all these points, 
with the exception of the last, and make \o 2^ one- 
third neck, from which come up § inch, and draw back 
neck. Now come in from lf>f> one inch, and draw back 
seam springing it out below 15| to join the straight line 
again at 22\. In measuring across the width of back, it 
is well to apply the measure, plus 2 seams {\ inch) about 
2 inches below line 2§, and spring out with a slight 
curve, till it meets point 63 ; this will be easily gathered 
by a reference to diagram ; now draw a straight line 
from f to G|, and hollow it slightly between £ and W 
as shown. Next measure across from \ to 20^, the 
half chest measure, plus 2 inches for making up, ease, 
&c, which amount must be varied, allowing more for 
thick and less for thin materials ; the quantity quoted 
is a good general average. From 204 measure back to 



12^, the average between the across chest and the 
across bust measures ; thus : ~\ + 8| = 16, half of 
which is 8, and by this means find the front of scye. 
We next proceed to form 

The Front Shoulder. 

Measure from to f , and whatever it may be, de- 
duct it from the front shoulder length, and by the 
remainder sweep from 12f, in the direction illustrated 
by 12 ; now add £ inch to this quantity, and sweep 
again from point 20^, and where the two arcs intersect 
each other locates the neck point F. Let it be clearly 
understood the back neck is deducted before the sweeps 
are made ; the first one from \2\ is the ne.t length of 
front shoulder, after the back neck has been taken off, 
and the sweep from 20^ is this quantity, with f inch 
added. Having got this point, measure forward on a 
level parallel to line \2\, 2()h, from F to V, the one- 
third of neck, and so find point V, which make a pivot 
of, and sweep the gorge from F to I. Now draw the 
breast line from V through point 2(H quite straight 
through 22 and 23^. We must now return to the 
shoulder. Measure the distance from ^ to W, deduct 
it from the over shoulder measure, and by the remain- 
der sweep from 12 in the direction illustrated by Hi D, ' 
and so find the scye end of shoulder. Now measure <&$ 
the width of back from | to 6|, and make F to D a full \ 
\ inch narrower than the back ; give a little round to 
this seam towards I). Now shape the scye, keeping it 
as hollow as possible above point 12^, and as close up 
at the top of sideseam above 8 and 4| as possible, con- 
sistent with harmony of outline. The top of sideseams 
will require a little readjustment as illustrated ; after 
w 7 e have located 

The Position of the Seams, 

Measure back from 12^ to \\\ one inch, and divide 
the distance from f, to llf, into three equal parts or 
nearly equal parts, arranging it so that any little extra 
which may not be easily divisable may be given to the 
back, as from ^ to 44; ; having got points 44 and 8 in 
this way, we must next fix the waist line ; measuring 
from N to E the side length, plus 1 seam (} inch), and 
so find E ; next apply the front length of waist, mea- 
suring from F to T the measure taken from nape to 
hollow of waist in front, allowing 1 inch for seams, 
after having deducted the width of back neck. Now 
draw the waist line from 15^ to E, and E to T. Make 
the back at waist line from 1 to 3 half the width it is 
at i, 4}, and connect 3 4| up to > with a gradual 
curve : continue the bottom of back, below 3 at right 
angles to line 1 3, and the outline of back is complete. 
Before we proceed with the sidebody, there are two 
sweeps to make, one from pivot \\, sweeping from seam 



IfcsSL 



.321 



above the top of back seam to find the top of sidebody. 
A reference to diagram will make this plain ; then 
sweeping from 3 to -4- at waist, making the top sideseam 
the pivot, so that the waist seam of sidebody appears 
dropped at 4. Many will ask why all this extra length 
is required in the sidebody ? We will explain. When- 
ever a seam is taken from a hollow, such as the side- 
seam of back, the seam is at once lengthened ; whereas, 
whenever a seam is taken from a round, such as the 
sideseam of sidebody, the seam is shortened ; and if 
some plan is followed to avoid getting the sidebody too 
short ; the back will either have to be fulled on, or the 
waist of sidebody will be nearly an inch above the 
waist of back, and so completely destroy the fit in that 
particular. 

In order that each reader may impi'ess the im- 
portance of these sweeps on his mind, we think it 
would be good practice to take a back pattern, mark a 
seam off the edge 4 \ 3, and measure with the tape to see 
how it increases in length, then take the sidebody, mark 
a seam from the edge, and note how it at once becomes 
shorter. It will then be apparent how very impoitant 
these sweeps are ; but no w we come to that important 
question of 

Waist Suppression. 

We have previously pointed out, when dealing with 
the principles of cutting, that suppression at one part 
causes fulness at another ; here, then, we have the key 
to the matter, for in accordance with the amount of 
the suppression will be the provision for the promi- 
nence, and consequently we need to gauge the amount 
of the prominence to be provided for. In our own 
practice, we have found it best to have a fixed quantity 
for the normal figure, and vary from it for prominent 
or flat blades ; and consequently we take out 1 inch 
between back and sidebody between 3 and 4, making it 
less for flat blades and more for prominent blades ; 
hence it will be seen the waist suppression between 
back and sidebody is to be governed by the prominence 
of the blades, and so on with all the prominences round 
the body. From 4 to 1\ is \ an inch less than 4£, 8 ; 
1 inch is taken out from 1\ to 8^, and the width of 
sidepiece is also fixed at \ an inch less than at top ; 
another inch is taken out between 1 1^ and 12^ ; thus 
it will be gathered we take out 1 inch at all three 
seams for an ordinarily developed figure. In the case 
of a very small waist, such as would indicate compres- 
sion by means of the corsets, all of these may be 
increased to 1J, or in extreme cases to 1^ inches. The 
various seams may now be drawn from the points thus 
found on the depth of scye line and the waist line, and 
we then proceed to arrange 



The Front Darts. 

As a good deal of style may be introduced by their 
aid, it will be as well to give them a careful considera- 
tion. Measure up the various parts, as from 1 to 3, 4 
to 7|, 8£ to \\\, and 124. to 22. Now take half the 
waist measure ; add about 2 inches for making up, and 
whatever is over and above that quantity indicates the 
amount to be taken out in the darts. Thus the various 
parts measure up 18 ; the half waist measures 13, plus 
2 inches for making up makes 15, leaving 3 inches to 
be taken out in darts. This is taken out as follows : 
Measure back from the breast line at T 1^ inches, and 
find 20jj ; now halve the amount to be taken out, or if 
it will not divide easily, take rather less than half for 
the front dart, and mark from 2<>i to 19 ; let the strap 
between 19 and 17^, be always 1 k inches, and take out 
the remainder from 17^ to 10. Now mark the centre 
of the spaces allotted for the darts, and draw a line 
parallel to the breast line as a guide for the direction 
of the darts, which should always run rather forward 
at the bottom and back at the top, so as to give as 
much appearance of width to the chest and as much 
length to the waist as possible. Now get the top of 
the darts at C by measuring down from F to C, the 
length to prominence as taken on the customer, allow- 
ing 1 inch, as the darts always come higher when sewn 
than when cut. Having got the top of the darts, 
sweep from 20^ and 17-i, in order to get the correct 
relative length of the sides of the darts, and then 
draw lines from top to these centres, as lti, 17^, 10, 
20tj. To terminate the darts at the bottom, a certain 
amount of judgment is necessary. If the stomach is 
fairly flat, terminate the dart 10 inches below the waist ; 
if slightly prominent, terminate it 8 inches below the 
waist line, and so on. Soften down any angle that 
may be in the outline at the waist, and the darts are 
complete. We next pi-oceed to provide for 

The Spring over the Hips. 

This requires very considerable adjustment in these 
days of small pads and large bustles. As noted in the 
measuring, the size of hips should be taken easily, 
about 7 inches below the waist, and it is on this mea- 
sure we depend for guidance now. Line 22^, 23^ is 7 
inches below the waist ; we measure from 22% to 23|, 
omitting the amount taken out in the darts at 17^ and 
21. Add 3 inches to the half hip measure, and what- 
ever the pattern measures too small, divide into 3 equal 
or nearly equal quantities, and let the various parts over- 
lap each other as illustrated at f , f and 1 on this hip 
line, always giving to the forepart any little extra that 
is not easily divided. It will be noticed a dotted line. 



o^'iflajyPi^ 




-^^r^fee^- 



TO CUTTING LADIES GARMENTS. 




is drawn at right angles from the centre of the space 
between 1\ and 8, and 11^ and \2\ as a guide to get 
the run of the seam towards the front, so that the front 
overlaps from there backward. If our readers have 
paid attention to the anatomical lessons, they will at 
once realize the importance of springing out sharply 
from the waist line downwards, especially at \2\. The 
back is squared at right angles to 3, and the run of the 
sidebody at back is got by drawing a line from :i 
through | to the bottom. It will be observed that the 
sidebody comes a little below the back, which is neces- 
sary owing to point 4 being a little lower than 3 ; the 
back and sidebody really require to be the same length 
downwards from 3. The relative length of back and 
front is quite a matter of taste, and as fashions change 
so rapidly, we will refrain from laying down any de- 
finite rule. The bottom of both sidebodies should be 
slightly rounded at the bottom, otherwise when the 
seams are sewn, there will be a point at the seams, and 
a hollow between, which must be adjusted if the jacket 
is desired to be satisfactory. 

The Button Stand 

Is the last thing to be arranged previous to cutting, 
and this must be done in harmony with the style of 
edge desired. The average for a stitched edge would 
be 1 inch on the hole side, and 1^ inches on button 
side : a quarter of an inch more is necessary for a 
double stitched edge, and a quarter inch less for a 
bound edge, unless it is a very wide binding. It may 
be as well to explain why more is allowed on the button 
side. The breast line as from V to 23^ should repre- 
sent the meeting edge to edge line, the true centre of 
the front. The extra half inch on the button side is 
needed to avoid the under garment showing through 
the end of the hole. In the event of the garment 
being desired to hook and eye, it should be cut merely 
1 seam ([ inch) beyond the breast line, whilst for dou- 
ble breasted styles, a varying amount must be left be- 
yond, or a lapel sewn on according to the style desired. 
But of these we shall deal with presently, so we will 
now give a few 

Hints on Making. 

Use especial care with the neck and waist sections to 
get them the right size. Let the shoulder be slightly 
stretched on all three sides, and be careful to avoid 
getting the collar on tight in the hollow below point 
F. See that the lining has plenty of surplus length to 
allow of the bend at the collar seam, indeed, it will be 
a »ood plan to always put a pleat in the lining of the 
shoulders, as is customary for vests. If the lady has 
prominent breasts, use every possible precaution to 
avoid getting the front of scye at 12^ full ; keep your 



sleeve rather tight there, putting any fulness there may 
be in the underside at X, or taking it out with a fish. 
If thought advisable, put a little wadding at \2\, but 
it must always be borne in mind, this will have the 
effect of reducing rather than emphasizing the pro- 
minence. 

If any padding or wadding is put in the breast, it 
should be carefully and skilfully done — nicely graded 
away, and for this purpose we have found horse-hair 
the most useful, not the horse-hair to be obtained by 
the yard at most trimming warehouses, but the loose- 
horse-hair obtainable at the saddlers. Care must of 
course be taken to secure it firmly, if that is done, it 
will be found that it can be graded off very much 
nicer than can be done with wadding or cloth. 

The waist section requires very considerable care in 
making. All the parts should be slightly stretched at 
the seams and shrunk in the centre as is usual with the 
sidebody of body coat for men. See that the waist 
does not make up too large, as some materials are very 
elastic, and it is difficult to exactly guage the amount 
to be consumed in making. In some loose materials it 
will be found advantageous to baste strips of linen to 
all the parts at the waist, and sew it in with all tbe 
seams to prevent it stretching. It is a very good plan 
to measure up the size of the waist after all the scams 
are sewn, except the underarm seam, and then adjust 
the size at that seam. 

Snip the button stand at waist and insert a V to 
enable it to lie smooth on the opposite side. Put all 
the linings in very long over the waist, as the sharp 
curve of the body at that part demands it. Always 
remember that whenever there is a hollow on the body, 
the lining must be longer than the outside. 

A waist band should be made up to the size of waist, 
and fastened to the centre and sideseams of back ; it 
steadies the garment and keeps it close in to the figure 
at the back, and also relieves the strain on the waist 
of jacket. If the garment is S. B. to button through, 
always arrange the eye of the hole to come on the 
breast line on the one forepart, and the button on the 
breast line of the other ; otheiwise the buttons will not 
come down the centre of figure. We are frequently 
asked on which side to put the holes in a lady's jacket. 
To this Ave can only reply, that there appears to be no 
universal custom amongst ladies' tailors. There can be 
no doubt, however, that ladies' are more accustomed to 
have them on the right side, and by ladies' tailors this 
is most usually done ; and as habit beomes second 
nature with many, it will be well to consider this mat- 
ter carefully before putting them in the left side as is 
occasionally done by some ladies' tailors, and universal 
with all gent's garments. We shall now proceed to 
deal with some of the varieties of 



.^i^ta ^ik-q r. 





■'-SST^erpv- 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 



Loose-fronted Jackets. 

Plate 5. 

For several seasons past, loose-fitting fronts have 
been very much patronised by ladies ; indeed, at the 
present time, there are probably few more popular 
jackets than the styles illustrated on this page of dia- 
grams. Diagram 2 and figure 12 has a dash and go 
about it, which recommends it to those who like some- 
thing a little dressy and stylish. When these jackets 
were first introduced, they were the source of much 
worry to even the most experienced ladies' cutters, and 
it was found that many patterns which produced most 
perfect fitting tight jackets, were anything but satis- 
factory when used for loose-fitting fronts ; hence it 
was found that something more was necessary, besides 
omitting the darts, in order to produce these jackets to 
perfection. The great difficulty many had to contend 
with, was tightness at the bottom of the front, below 
the waist, causing a nasty drag from under the bottom 
of the arm to stomach ; this was soon traced to the 
front edge being too long, or perhaps, what a good 
many people would call too crooked. Needless for us 
to say, this defect was more apparent amongst those 
cutters who patronise a round front edge, and which we 
have so often pointed out as wrong in principle ; and 
although it may, and undoubtedly does, produce pass- 
able fits, if not overdone, for tight-fitting garments, 
yet, when applied to loose-fitting fronts, it is a failure ; 
hence it is of the greatest importance that the line 
drawn from V through 20i should be quite straight, 
that being the shortest possible distance between two 
points, and so producing that shortness of front edfre 
absolutely necessary to balance the foreparts, and cause 
them to hang gracefully down the fronts. But there 
are other changes also necessary ; for this straightness 
of the front edge, combined with the darts being omit- 
ted, make it far too large round the bottom, and espe- 
cially over the hips ; hence the necessity of taking out 
more between sidepiece and forepart at waist ; from H 
to 2 inches is the amount we have found to suit the 
majority of customers, and just letting the forepart 
and sidepiece meet at the bottom. With these varia- 
tions from the close-fitting jacket, previously explained 
we have been able to turn out most successful garments 
for the majority of ladies ; the exception being with 
those who are very prominent at the bust, when the 
shortness of the front caused a fulness to appear at the 
front of scye. With such figures, we found it advisable 
to take out a small dart from about 2 inches in front 
of the side at 12 J, and terminating just below the pro- 
minence ; this had the effect of not only providing a 
receptacle for the bust, but also made the waist to fit 
snug at the sides — always a desideratum in loose-front- 




ed jackets. As far as the cutting of this class of jacket 
is concerned, we think we have said enough to point 
out the special features to be observed, and the dangers 
to be avoided, so we will now pass on to give a few 
hints on the various styles in which these are being 
worn. 

The D. B. Yachting, 

As illustrated on diagram 2 and figure 12 is produced 
by adding about 2h inches beyond the breast line all 
the way through, and carefully arranging the shape at 
the top to agree with the style of lapel desired ; the 
one indicated is such as we should adopt for Yacht- 
ing Costumes, or when it is intended to have a collar 
and turn after the style of gent's Reefers ; but inas- 
much as this is a matter of taste, and ladies take a 
wide view of what is taste, there are naturally many 
variations in this matter of lapels ; for instance, many 
were made up during the past few months, with only 
one lapel and stand collar, indeed the under forepart 
was cut away to the breast line, and the lapel on the 
one side made much heavier than it would otherwise 
have been, and faced with fur or velvet. As we write, 
one of the newest styles of these jackets has a roll collar. 

The Beatrice, figure 13, diagram 3, is another style 
which is very popular, it is either finished with a stand 
or fall cohar as may be desired. When made with an 
ordinary S. B. collar and turn, it is especially suitable 
for lawn tennis or boating jackets. For this style it is 
only necessary to add about 1 inch for button stand 
beyond the breast line, whilst many cut them away 
from just below point 22| in order to show about 2 or 
3 inches of vest at the waist ; thus endless varieties 
may be produced. 

There is just one other style we muet notice, as it 
has had a most unprecedented run, especially in seal- 
skin, seal plushes, and so on ; we refer to the Macbeth, 
figure 14, diagram 4, which fastens over on the one 
shoulder, and running off to nothing at the bottom. 
The easiest way to cut these is to fold the pattern over 
at the breast line I T, and cut the gorge on the double, 
and carry the one side as far over the shoulder as 
thought desirable, generally to within about 1 inch of 
the scye seam, and then shaping the front edge from 
this point, either straight or curved, as tiste may direct, 
and letting it just overlap about 1 inch at the bottom. 
With this style it is customary to cut the under fore- 
part only to reach to the breast line, but this, too, is a 
matter of taste, and consequently often varied. 

The Position of the Seams. 

The position allotted to the various seams have much 
to do with the harmony in the general outline of the 
garment, and it behoves every cutter to make this fea 



. p^^^ M, 




ture a special study, so that he may give each customer 
just that outline most suited to her figure, and so bring 
into prominence those points of beauty which exist in 
a more or less degree in every figure. Now, although 
for our own part we like to see the sidebody, sidepiece, 
and back about the same width on the depth of scye 
line, as described when dealing with the tight-fitting 
jacket, yet it does not by any means follow that any 
other division would be unsatisfactory ; so our readers 
may use their individual taste to the fullest extent so 
long as they retain the same, or nearly the same, waist 
suppression ; but it will be well to bear in mind that it 
is always advisable to hring the wndtrarm seam as for- 
ward as possible ; as, whilst facilitating the fit over the 
hips, it also keeps the waist at side closer to the figure. 
What we have said in regard to the variations in the 
position of the seams applies with equal force all over. 

Hints on Making. 

Much that we have said in reference to dia. 1 on this 
subject will apply with equal force to these garments ; 
such, for instance, as the putting the lining in long 
over the waist, especially in the back ; putting a waist 
band to keep it firm at back and sides, and so on ; 
whilst the mode of putting in the pockets is as varied for 
these garments as they are for gents'. Care should be 
used in puttii g on the collar to keep it easy in the hol- 
low just below F ; whilst in the front, just beyond the 
break, it should be rather tight, as also in sewing round 
the back, there should be the least degree of tightness, 
thereby facilitating the fit behind ; but, above all 
things, it is necessary to put it on easy in the hollow, 
for apart from the fact that when a seam is taken off 
the gorge at that point, it becomes longer, and in like 
manner the collar becomes shorter ; the neck also rises 
out of the trunk very decidedly at that part, and re- 
quires the gorge to be well stretched. This is more 
noticeable with short-necked figures, with whom the 
muscles of the neck come up very suddenly. 

Silk facings are often put on the lapels of the D.B. 
styles, as diagram 2, to come up to the end of the holes, 
when these garments are made from black Vicunas and 
Worsteds ; and they then make a very stylish garment. 
The position of the buttons is a frequent source of 
difficulty to the inexperienced ; but it need not be so 
if they only have the breast line to guide them, when 
the following simple plan will be found thoroughly 
reliable : Put the tape on the breast line, and sweep 
from the eye of the hole once from a point below the 
level, and again from a point above the level, and 
where these intersect each other is the proper place to 
locate the button. 

waistband should invariably be placed at the waist 




behind, as it not only keeps it steady and prevents it 
twisting, but it also keeps it close to the waist. 

Braided Jackets. 

Plate 6. 

On this Plate we illustrate the various methods of 
braiding jackets ; they are mostly of a military charac- 
ter. Before we deal with each style separately, we shall 
make a brief reference to the effect the different 
styles have on the body. Those having the braid run- 
ning only in a horizontal manner, give the effect of 
width, which, although frequently very desirable, must 
not be done at the expense of the length, except in 
very tall, thin figures. To counteract the shortening 
tendency of these plain horizontal row , drop loops, 
rows of eyes, and braid laid on in a vertical direction 
are introduced. Take, for instance, diagram 13. The 
braid on the edges introduces one line, the eyes above 
and below each row of braid across the front intr< duce 
two more rows, and the drop loops introduce two 
more, so that there are five rows of ornaments running 
in a vertical, as well as five in a horizontal, direction ; 
and as the horizontal rows get narrower at the waist, 
several effects are produced. Length is added, width 
is added, and by the emphasis given to the width of 
the shoulders, the waist appears relatively small. 

Diagram 5, 



Illustrates a style of braiding very popular with ladies. 
A row of flat mohair braid is put all round the ed<;e, 
and rows of tubular braid from \ to f inch wide are 
laid across the front. In this diagram each row is 
terminated with an Austrian knot, a p'an which may 
be varied in the style illustrated by diagram (i, which 
represents the drop loop for Rifle garments or diagram 
7, as used in the army for the artillery and engineers, 
when sometimes the eyes in the centre are omitted ; 
or the style illustrated on diagram 13 may be used, 
which is the plan followed for Infantry garments. 
The braid is always started from the loop end, the 
finish being arranged under one of the cress overs. 
Care must be used to prevent the ends of the braid 
from fraying, the best plan being to wind cotton or 
thread round the end several times, and so securely 
fasten it. Loops of braid are invariably left beyond 
the edge on the one side, to fasten over the olivets or 
buttons placed on the edge of the other. If this is 
not done, a very long neck will have to be put to the 
buttons. A master tailor of the army, stationed at 
Malta, recently spent amonth at our Cutting Academy, 
and he kindly showed us the methods he adopted to 
arrange these drop loops and Austrian knots. 

.a ^ig^t^yi^ct 



.&&& 




-^TS^I^T^ 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




Diagram 8 

Is a piece of cardboard. It will be noticed there is a 
notch at the bottom of dotted line A ; this is placed on 
the centre line, the point B being also arranged on this 
line, when the outline is to be marked round as per 
solid line 1, 2, :?, 4, diagram 10. Now turn the card 
over to the other side, still with notch A and point B 
on centre line, and mark as per dot and dash line 5 6 7 : 
the small loop above 1 7 may then be formed by rock 
of eye, and to complete the bottom of the knot, turn 
the card upside down, fitting the circle in to the out- 
line :! 4. and mark as from 5 to 6, and the Austrian 
knot is complete. Full instructions for tying these 
was given in Part I., so we will not again repeat them, 
merely remarking that throughout the entire knot the 
braid should run over and under the whole way. 

Diagram 9 

Represents the piece of card the master tailor referred 
to used to mark the drop loops, the same as illustrated 
on diagram 13 : a line is drawn in the direction the 
loop should point, and the top B and the notch at A 
are both kept on this line, the larger part of this oval 
being on the outside. Now turn the pattern round so 
that A B still rests on the line, but with the larger part 
on the inside. If this course is followed many of the 
difficulties of braiding will vanish, and what was looked 
upon as a difficult matter will be very simple. 

Diagram 11 

Illustrates the artillery style of braiding. This is fre- 
quently done with a round cord, but the cord is not so 
easy to manipulate as the braid ; the rows of braid 
should go very narrow at the waist and as broad as 
possible at the shoulders, often extending right to the 
shoulder seam. Ball buttons are the correct style of 
fastening down the front, though of course this is only 
the ornamental fastening, the real fastening being done 
by hooks and eyes. The edges are invariably braided 
with flat mohair braid. The back of the jacket should 
be trimmed in harmony. 

Diagram 14 

Represents one very good style ; strictly speaking, this 
i- the style of back that goes with 

The Infantry Forepart. Diagram 13. 

But as there are no regulations for ladies' garments, 
this is often used, as it is very effective and very sim- 
ple. The military regulation trimming for the Artillery 
Jacket has a crow's toe at top, and an Austrian knot 
pointed towards the sideseam. 



The braid across this forepart is generally of the 
tabular make and about £ inch wide, the top row 
reaching to the scye seam and sometimes overlapping 
it and graduating down narrower to the waist. Further 
details of this style of front will be found in the des- 
cription of diagram 5. 

Diagram 15. The Guards. 

This style of braiding is very effective, the braid is 
the same on the edges and across the front, the ends 
are finished with a sprat's head, and olivets arranged 
up each front. The details of this are so clearly brought 
out in the diagram, that it is not necessary for us to 
give any elaborate description in the letterpress. 

Jackets made in this style are often made with loose- 
fitting fronts, the braiding showing off rather more to 
advantage in that style than in close-fitting garments. 
The braid is generally mohair from f to 1 inch wide. 

Diagram 12, 

h a little variation from the Austrian knot ; an extra 
loop is introduced on either side, and as the same in- 
structions given for them will apply, we will not go 
into further detail, merely calling attention to this as a 
very popular style of braiding for loose-fitting fronts, 
the long loops being arranged to fasten over the olivets 
on either side, as the taste of the wearer may dictate. 

Ladies' S.B. Newmarket. Diagram 16. 

The popularity of the Skirted Jacket, at the time we 
write, is so great, that it may fairly be looked upon as 
likely to occupy an important place in the standard 
styles for some years to come, and as there are many 
variations in the style, we select two of the most 
popular, and by describing the principles embodied in 
their production, lay a foundation from which our 
readers may be able to form any of the various styles 
which have, or may, become popular. 

Figure 19 

Illustrates the S. B. style, with neat collar and turn, 
flaps are placed on the hips to cover the Y's on hips. 

The system for producing the body part is precisely 
the same as described for the Jacket, so we refer our 
readers to that for the upper part, and proceed to deal 
with the first special features, viz., the run of the waist 
seam, and though this is largely a matter of taste, it 
may be as well for us to lay down some definite quan- 
tities as guides for the inexperienced. In doing so, it 
must be borne in mind that the quantities quoted are 
merely looked upon as guides. 

Commencing at the back, then, we come down 2\ or 
8 inches from the waist line, about 2 inches at the side» 



. P^j^ty^ - 



and 8 to 3^ at the front, taking care to adjust all the 
seams to agree with those to which they are intended 
to join, making all the parts slightly round at bottom. 
As will be seen, the back is continued to the full length, 
about 1 inch being left on either side, as illustrated on 
diagram, for the formation of side pleats and opening 
in back ; the style of finish most usual for these being 
the same as for gent's body coats, though sometimes 
box pleats are placed at the centre of back ; when it 
will be necessary to allow 3^, 7 or 10^ inches according 
a single, double or treble box pleats are desired, at pre- 
sent, however, these are the exception for this style of 
jacket. We now pass on to deal with 

The Skirt System. Diagram 17. 

Draw lines G, 23 at right angles, making 23 
half the nett size of seat ; measure down from to 7 
7 inches always, and square line across to 7 in the front. 
Now come in from to 1, 1 inch, and draw line A, G 
from 1 through 7 : come back from 23 to '22\ f of an 
inch, and draw line from 22£ through F and 7 to get 
the run of the front. Next measure the depth of the 
body part below waist line at back, sides, and front, 
and whatever that is, come down from line 0, 1, 23 to 
find the run of the waist seam of the skirt. Now mea- 
sure the width of the sidebody at bottom, and make A 
to B of the skirt the same ; take out 1 to 1^ inches in 
a V from B to C, and make C to D the same width as 
the bottom of the sidepiece. Now measure the width 
of the forepart after the seams are sewn, or allow for 
the seams in measuring, and make F to E what it mea- 
sures. The distance from E to 1) is taken out in a V, 
when the skirt will only need plain sewing to the body 
part. Many ladies at present, however, prefer having 
the extra quantity fulled on over the hips, after the 
style usual for gents' body coats, only of course there is 
very much more fulness. If this latter method is 
desired, it will of course be necessary to omit the V's 
B C and D E. 

Add half an inch of round at 7, and mark off the 
length from A to G in accordance with the customer's 
wishes, making due allowance for the seams. As 
fashion goes at present, it is customary to arrange the 
skirt so that it appears level all round, when I G and 
2->\, H would be the same, but of course this may be 
varied at will, as also may the run of skirt in the front, 
many ladies having them cut away so as to show a 
much wider opening than our illustration shows. 

Flaps are arranged to go on the hips about 3h inches 
deep, and generally wide enough to cover the V's, the 
flap being cut without V's as illustrated on diagram 2o. 
When the skirt is closed at top, the hollow of the waist 
seam is taken as a guide for the top of the flaps, the 
loose part being arranged to taste. 



D.B. Newmarket. Dias. 18, 19 and 20, 

With the D.B. Newmarket we introduce the subject 
of lapels. The easiest way to cut a lapel is to use the 
front edge as a guide to cut the sewing-to-edge by, and 
to shape the outside to taste. It will be found very 
beneficial if the bottom of forepart is sprung out a lit- 
tle below waist line, from the original straight front 
edge as drawn for S.B., in which case the lapel would 
overlap at the bottom as per dot and dash line below T. 
It is very difficult to lay down any definite guide in the 
matter of lapel, they are of course made narrower at 
the waist. Both character and style may be infused 
into a jacket by the outline of these lapels. Seeing 
then that the outside edge of the lapel is so much 
a matter of taste, we will only further remark that it is 
a forepart in minature, all parts intending to be used 
to fit being cut exactly the same as the forepart it is to 
go over. 

In making up garments with a lapel, it is an ad- 
vantage to put hooks and eyes at the lapel seam ; it 
steadies the garment in wear, though of course it has 
the disadvantage of only allowing the garment to be 
worn buttoned on one side. We will now proceed to 
give 

Another Skirt System, Diagram 19. 

Draw line 0, (J, (), C ; come down from to 6, 6 
inches ; go out 1 inch and draw line from through 
1 ; add h an inch of round as illustrated, and the back 
is complete. Now come up from line 0, C, at A what- 
ever the waist seam is hollowed, drawing a line from 
bottom of sidebody and bottom of front : in this case 
the waist seam is hollowed 1 inch. Make from to A 
the same width as the bottom of the sidebody ; take 
out 1^ or 2 inches in a V, terminating it about :;.', 
inches down. Make the space from A to B about the 
same as the width of sidepiece, and take out another 1^ 
inches ; make space from B to 2 the same width as the 
forepart after the seams are sewn ; come up from C to 
2, 2 inches, more or less according to the amount of 
drapery desired at sides. If this is made much more 
than 2 inches, the amount to be taken out in V's at 
A B may be reduced. Now finish the waist seam by 
drawing from A, B to 2 To get the run of the front, 
mark up from 2 to 4 the same amount as previously 
come up from C to 2 ; then take the square, and use 
point 0, 4 as the base by which to draw the run of 
front at right angles. Arrange the relative length of 
back and front of skirt to taste and the skirt is com- 
plete, with the exception of leaving on down the back 
a due provision for the style of pleat desired ; if the 
ordinary side pleat is desired, 1 inch will be sufficient. 
In cutting 





^ragSppr 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




The Flap, Diagram 20, 

Take the skirt pattern and close the V's of waist- 
seam, and mark round just that part the flap is desired 
to cover. Flaps are of course usually arranged on the 
hips so as to cover the V's taken out there. The dotted 
line A B represents A B of diagram 19. This is really 
all the fitting part there is, for the marking of the out- 
line is purely a matter of taste, and as such it is very 
varied. The outline of diagram 20 illustrates the 
general style of outline used by tailors, but we have 
also seen a large number made pointed at either end 
and one point in the centre. This enables extra 
deep darts being hid without the flaps being made ex- 
ceptionally heavy, if the points are carefully adjusted 
to the V's. 

Pockets are sometimes placed under these flaps, but 
they are more frequently made sham. 

There is one other very important class we have not 
yet treated of, viz., the 

Jacket and Vest 

Style, or Jacket with Vest fronts added to the side- 
seams. These are very popular, and as they allow 
ample scope for the introduction of ornamental trim- 
ming, either braid or contrasting material there is little 
doubt they will continue to be so, for they have a style 
so distinctly their own, and have such a careful grace- 
ful appearance that whether it is summer or winter, 
this class of jacket hold their own, for in winter the 
vest may be made of fur whilst in summer there are 
plenty of makers of fancy yestings suitable, so that it 
is distinctly an all the year round style, but inasmuch 
as we are giving a full description of all kinds of Vests 
in another chapter, we have omitted special diagrams 
and description to explain the system purposely, as the 
Jackets are cut in exactly the same way as others, the 
fronts being more generally loose-fronted aud often cut 
away ; sometimes arranged to merely hook and eye at 
the neck, and at others arranged with a collar and 
turn, but in any case the outline of diagram 3 may 
be followed, the fronts being merely cutaway in accord- 
ance with taste, and the Vest front sewn in with the 
side, scye, and shoulder seams. A reference to the 
chapter on vests will doubtless make this matter quite 
clear. 

This concludes our section on Jackets. "We have 
treated of tight-fitting, loose-fitting, single-breasted, 
double-breasted, and skirted styles of Jackets, and 
although doubtless there are many we have not illus- 
trated, yet our aim has been to take representatives of 
each class, and so lay the foundation for our readers 
to develop any outline they may think fit. 



Section Three. 

Bodices. 
Dia. 21. Figs. 21 and 22. Plate 10. 

As the Dress Bodice is probably one of the most im- 
portant garments ladies' tailors have to deal with, we 
will treat of it as fully as possible, and as there are 
many points of difference to the Jacket System, we 
will describe it in detail, although our readers will at 
once recognise the same principle involved in both. 
The measures we take for these are as follows : depth 
of scye, natural waist, full length of back, side length 
from the bottom of armpit to natural waist over the 
hips, width across baok ; continue to elbow and on 
to full length of cuff with the arm bent; width 
across chest, width across bust, half neck from nape 
to front, front shoulder from nape to bottom of scye 
in front. Nape to prominence of breast, nape to 
hollow of waist in front, over shoulder from depth of 
scye on back over shoulder from depth of scye on back 
over the shoulder and down in the front of scye to the 
bottom of armpit ; size of chest, size of waist and size 
of hips. These measures would probably run as fol- 
lows, 8^ depth of scye, 15^ natural waist, 21^ full 
length, 7\ side length, 5^ width across back, 19 con- 
tinue to elbow, 27^ to full length of sleeve, 7 3- width 
across chest, 8f width across bust, 1\ neck, 12 front 
shoulder, 13 nape to prominence, 19 nape to hollow of 
waist, 16 over shoulder, 36 chest, 26 waist, 44 hips. 

The application of these measures are as follows, see 

Diagram 6. 

Draw line 21|, and proceed to mark off to 2 £ 
natural waist ; to 8^ the depth of scye as taken on 
the customer, to 15^ the natural waist length, and 
to 2lh the full length desired, plus seams (^ inch) ; 
draw line at right angles to these various points, and 
proceed by coming in one inch at natural waist, and 
draw line from to 1, and continue back seam hy 
springing it out below 1, till it meets line at 21|. From 
to 2.i is £ neck, from which come up f inches ; mea- 
sure across from 2 to 6 the width of back, plus 2 seams 
(^ inch), and from ^ to 20 the half chest, plus U or 
2 i ches for making up, ease, &c. This allowance 
must be varied according to judgment, allowing more 
of the material is thic < and unyielding ; and less if the 
material is thin and elastic. If the garment is desired 
easy fitting, allow the larger quantity. From 20 mea- 
sure back to 12 the average between the across chest 
and across bust, thus : 1\ + 8| = 16, half this 
which is the amount to come back from point 20 to 
find the front of scye. We next proceed to get 

5ii£u 





■^rgfee^ 



TO CUTTING LADIES GARMENTS. 




The front Shoulder. 

Deducting 0, f from the front shoulder measure 12, 
and by the remainder sweep to find point F, using 
point 12 as the pivot ; now add f inch to this quantity, 
and sweep again from 20 as illustrated by dotted line 
12f, and where these two segments cross each other 
locates the neck point F ; now measure the distance 
from \ to W of the back, deduct this from the over 
shoulder measure, and by the remainder sweep from 
point 12 to find D, so that this sweep finds the shoulder 
slope. The width of front shoulder as from F to D is 
\ inch less than width of back from f in the direction 
of W. Come forward from F to V £ neck, make V a 
pivot, and sweep gorge from F, then draw the centre 
line of breast from V + through 20 ; now draft the 
rcye, keeping it as hollow as possible above point 12, 
and well up at A B. We next turn our attention to 

The position of Seams. 

Come back from 12 one inch, and find point 11 : 
divide the distance from 11 to h, into 4 equal parts as 
illustrated at 3£, 6, 8^, 11 ; make the width of back 
from 1 to 2^, half the distance from ^ to 3£, and draw 
sideseam from A through 3 J, 2\, continuing below 2^ 
at right angles to 15^, 2^. Now, before we proceed 
further, we think it will be well to apply side length 
from bottom of scye to find the run of the waist line, 
allowing J inch for seams ; next apply the length of 
front as from F to 21^, as illustrated by 19 + 1, 
the 1 inch being allowed to compensate for the seams. 
Having found these points, draw the waist line from 
2^ to 11, and on to 21^ ; having got this, we proceed 
with locating the seams ; next sweeping from point 3^ 
as at A to find the top of sidebody, then use point A 
and sweep from point 2^, and then we draw the waist 
line for sidebody as illustrated. But before we go any 
further, we must consider the importance of 

The Waist Suppression, 

Which we generally arrange by fixed quantities, vary- 
ing it according to judgment by increasing it for 
prominent blades, and reducing it for flat. The 
amount we usually take out between back and sidebody 
is | of an inch as at 2\, 3], and draw the sidebody as 
shown, taking out a little at A. Make the width of 
sidebody from 3|- to 5£, \ an inch less than from 3 j- to 



6 ; come from 5i 



to6H 



of an inch : and make the 



width of first sidepiece \ an inch less than 6, 8| ; take 
out | of an inch from 8^ to 9, and make the width of 
the second sidepiece \ an inch less than 8^, 11, and 
take out 1 inch from 11 to 12. Now measure up the 
various parts at the waist, as from 1 to 2| ; 3| to h\ : 

— —— — — &L 




6y to 8^ ; and 9 to 11 ; and then apply it from 12 to 
21i, and then reduce the waist to measure by means of 

The Forepart Darts, 

Allowing dbont \\ ; inches for making up. This may 
appear a small quantity to allow for no less than 14 
seams, but experience tells lis it is more often too much 
than too little, the elasticity of the material, and the 
desire to get a tight-fitting waist being factors not to 
be overlooked. Suppose there is Z\ inches to come out 
in darts, we take 1^ out of the first one, placing it 
about 1^ inches from the breast line, leave 1^ inches 
between the two darts, and take out the remainder in 
the back dart ; always get the darts to run rather 
towards the front at bottom than the reverse. For 
this purpose, draw the dotted line as represented in the 
centre of the darts, parallel to the breast line, termina- 
ting them by letting them meet about 10 inches below 
the waist line as shown on diagram. It only remains 
now to adjust 

The Spring over the Hips, 

By measuring up the various parts at the bottom, and 
letting them overlap each other, so that 3 inches of 
surplus size is left for ease and making up, distributing 
the extra amount required about equally at the various 
seams. Add on f of an inch for the button-stand on 
the hole side, and 1^ on the button side, if it is desired 
to fasten the bodice in the ordinary 8.B. style, or ar- 
range a lapel after the manner described for the D.B. 
Newmarket if it is wished to be D.B., while if it is 
desired to fasten with hooks and eyes a seam left 
beyond breast line will be all that is needed. Having 
arranged the fronts in accordance with the style of 
fastening desired the bodice is complete. We will 



A Few Hints on Making. 

On no account sew the lining and the outside to- 
gether at the same time, as the dressmakers do, because 
the linings require to be wider and longer in the hollow, 
and shorter over the curves, just as the inner edge of a 
circle is shorter than the outer edge, so must the out- 
side be to the lining. It is the tailor's aim to make 
the outside fit ; the lining is merely an accessory ; it is 
the dressmaker's aim to make the lining fit. Have 
your bone casings put in very long over the waist ; let 
them be made from material on the bias ; do not let 
them come higher than the top of the darts, or nearer 
the bottom than \ an inch ; let the bones be carefully 
prepared and firmly secured. In sewing the seams, full 
on the round ones a trifle, especially when they are 



er=o- 



joined to a hollow ; put the collar on loug in the gorge 
hollow, and keep the sleeve tight round the back scye. 
If wadding or padding is used, see that it is carefully 
graded off, as the height of art must always be to con- 
ceal art. Put a waist-band at the waist, as it not only 
relieves any strain at that part, but it also holds the 
garment firm to the figure ; have a hook to fasten the 
bodice to the skirt at the back, and so prevent the 
underclothing being seen when the wearer bends or 
stoops. We shall deal more fully with some of the 
special features of making in another chapter. 

Ladies' Dress Bodice | Checked Material 

No seams allowed. Dias. 22 and 23, 

Plate 11. Figure 23. 

Many of the students who come to our office to study 
the art of cutting ladies' garments, have been in the 
habit of allowing all the seams beyond their marks' ; 
this plan has many advantages, especially when cutting 
checked goods, or if the material is of a very ravelly 
nature, and when the usual ^ inch seam would not be 
sufficient to stand the ordinary wear and tear. When 
cutting checked goods it greatly facilitates the matter 
of matching, and as the materials from which ladies' 
costumes are now being made have a distinct tendency 
to large patterns, we deem it advisable to show the 
variations necessary to meet such cases in a work of 
this sort. 

In garments from such materials, fit has occasionally 
to be sacrificed to some extent so that style may be 
allowed full scope ; especially is this the case with the 
sideseam, where there is no suppression taken out, the 
usual inch being equally divided at the two nearest 
seams. The reason for this is : if any suppression was 
taken out, it would be found impracticable to match 
both the vertical and horizonal stripes : hence, in order 
that this may be accomplished, the fit is to some small 
extent sacrificed ; and the possible defect that would 
show itself would be a horizontal fold running from 3| 
to ('■;{, which would be more or less as the lady's blades 
were prominent or flat. With most ladies this would 
not show itself in a very marked degree, as the blades 
are generally flat as compared to those of men. Still, 
we wish it to be distinctly understood this method is 
arranged for a certain object, viz., to allow of check 
material being made up with all the cross bars to match 
exactly, and not with the view of producing the most 
accurate fit. Some of our readers may desire to cut all 
their garments out without any seams allowed ; if so, 
they may use the ordinary 1 inch suppression from con- 
struction line at back, and take out the usual 1 inch sup- 
pression between back and sidebody and sidebody and 
sidepiece as elsewhere described. With these introduc- 



tory or cautionary remarks, we will proceed to deal 
with the system applied for making bodices of check 
material, or, to be more correct, the adaptation of 

The System. Dia. 22. No seams allowed. 

And for this purpose we proceed as follows : 
<sj is the depth of scye as taken on the customer, on to 
16 the natural waist, and on to bottom the full length 
desired ; to 2\ one-sixth of the natural waist or to 
taste, as any variation in this part is adjusted in the 
front shoulder ; the width of back neck is fixed by one- 
sixth of neck ; from the centre of the back, measure 
across the width of back desired ; from 10 come in \\, 
and draw the back seam through from it to 1 ^, and 
arrange the spring in the usual way. Xow measure 
forward from f to 18f the half breast measure, and 
from this measure back to 10^, the average between 
the across chest and the across bust measures less \ an 
inch, and apply the front and over shoulder in the 
same way as we have previously described. Some sur- 
prise may be felt at this, and thinking it would have 
been necessary to deduct a certain amount from the 
measure, owing to the seams being added afterwards. 
A little reflection, however, would soon show, that 
though a seam is usually taken from the shoulder, as at 
A, B, yet the scye is deepened the same amount, so that 
the depth of scye still retains the same relative position 
to the neck and shoulder points. Xo suppression is 
taken out between back and sidebody at waist, but an 
extra \ inch, making 1^ altogether, is taken out 
between sidebody and sidepiece. In other respects the 
system is worked in quite the ordinary way, arranging 
the seams either in the style illustrated on this Plate or 
on Plate 10, and in other details follow the same plan 
as previously described, so that it would be unnecessary 
repetition for us to go over all the points. We will 
only remark that the waist should be made up to 1 
inch less than the nett size of the customer's waist 
measure, otherwise it will come out too large ; even 
then it will do so in some very elastic materials, so that 
it will always be advisable to check the waist and make 
it up to measure by adjusting it at the under arm seam. 

Hints on Making. 

The leading feature to be studied in making up is, 
that the pattern shall match at all the various parts to 
a nicety, it will even be necessary to sacrifice fit to a 
certain extent for that purpose. It will, however, be 
impossible to get both the horizontal and perpendicular 
lines to match at all the scams, and to ran satisfactorily 
Avith the front, and as the underarm seam is the one 
most out of sight, that would be the seam we should 
sacrifice in this way. There are several methods of 



getting the patterns to match in the sewing, but one 
of the best and surest we have seen, is to turn in the 
back just to the mark, and then lay it on the top of 
the sidebody, and so get it to exactly match every bar 
and cross bar, and when in that position, fell baste it 
from the outside, which will then leave a row of straight 
stitches on the wrong side, and which will clearly indi- 
cate the place where the seam must be sewn. In cutting, 
it will he found impracticable to cut the goods on the 
double, each part must be carefully adjusted to the parts 
adjoining, we have indicated the most effectual lay of the 
pattern on the material, cutting through the perpendi- 
cular lines at the back seam, but arranging the front to 
run with it : the necessity of this latter arrangement 
will at once be apparent, when we point out that it is 
the only way of getting the pattern to match down the 
centre of the front. A reference to figure 23 will fully 
illustrate this. It will be observed that the sleeve 
is cut without a seam op the hindarm above the elbow, 
a feature which very greatly facilitates the matching 
process, whilst in order to get the pattern of sleeve and 
forepart to harmonise, the pattern at top of forearm 
sleeve and the front pitch should be adjusted ; as we 
treat of sleeves fully in a separate chapter, we refer our 
readers to it for a full explanation of the Sleeve System. 

The Norfolk Jacket. Dia. 24. Fig. 24. 

This garment, which is little affected by fashion, is 
always popular with a very large number of ladies, and 
is certainly a most becoming garment for holiday wear 
and sporting purposes. It is the ideal garment for 
fishing, and is one of the most frequently patronized 
styles for pedestrian exercises. It seldom becomes the 
rage, while it is always to be seen in wear, hence out- 
giving it a place in this work : and more especially so, 
because it has many characteristics peculiarly its own. 
It matters not whether it is intended for fishing, walk- 
ing, cycling or equestrian purposes, it is arranged in 
the same way. We will proceed to deal with 



Diagram 24, 

And explain the special features of cut. We shall not 
describe the system in minute detail, as our readers 
will readily gather how that is arranged by a reference 
to the description of diagram 1 . We will rather devote 
our remarks to the variations from diagram 1. In the 
first place the quantity allowed (2 inches) for making 
up may he excessive, if the material is thin, so that it 
may be advisable in such case to reduce the amount 
allowed to li inches. In the next place it will be 
observed that the sideseam runs into the shoulder seam, 
and of course that involves an extra h inch, making 1 




j^rz ^ter 



inch in all beyond the width of back measure taken. 
The location of the sideseam is fixed by the position 
desired for the pleats ; in the diagram we have retained 
our usual method of fixing point 4 at one-third the 
distance from ^ to 1 H, but of course this may be varied 
to taste, in accordance with 

The Arrangement of the Pleats. Dia. 25. 

These are strips of material cut double the width 
desired, as illustrated on diagram 25, B C and E (r 
representing the width of pleat ; and A E, 1) H the 
edges turned in ; these edges are then serged together, 
and the pleat arranged in such a position as is most 
suitable for the wearer. Xow although these pleats are 
in reality separate pieces of material, the aim should be 
to make them appear as if they were all in one piece 
with the bodice, and with that end in view it will be 
advisable to keep them as straight as possible, and pre- 
ferably the same width throughout, because if they are 
curved or made narrower at the waist — as they some- 
times are — this idea is at once dispelled. There are 
usually three pleats behind, one down the centre scam 
of back, and one on either side, the side pleats meeting 
others on the forepart at the shoulder seam. The pleat 
down each forepart is generally arranged to go over 
the dart, and as will be seen, one dart only is taken 
out instead of two, this will necessitate its being taken 
higher than where there are two. A pleat is generally 
placed down the centre of front, and a very good style 
of finishing the cuff is illustrated on figure 24, consist- 
ing of two pleats somewhat narrower than those on 
the bodice placed on the bottom of the cuff. We will 
now give a few 

Hints on Making, 

But as we have dealt with this phase somewhat fully 
for the jacket and bodice, we must confine ourselves 
to the special features of this jacket. In sewing on 
the pleats it will be very necessary to remember more 
length will be required over the prominences than for 
the waist, indeed, from X to C should be put on full, 
more or less so in accordance with the roundness of the 
figure, and kept tight in the hollow of waist from C to 
E ; this latter is even more important than the former. 
The best plan will be to baste these pleats on over the 
knee, when due provision may be made for both pro- 
minences and hollows. The pleats are sewn to from 
the inside. Some firms stitch down the edge of the 
pleats as illustrated on figure 24, to make them match 
the edges : it doubtless makes them firm, but at the 
same time it destroys much of the easy going appear- 
ance of which this garment is so characteristic, so that 
we leave this for the cutter's individual decision, as it 

C 



will be for him to decide whether it is an improvement, 
or only time wasted ; we know some tailors contend 
that it destroys the idea that the pleats are in one piece 
with the bodice, bnt whether this is so or not we will 
not stay to consider, bnt pass on to deal with 

The Mode of Fastening the Front. 

Some make them to fasten with hooks and eyes and 
let the front pleat come half over the edge, but the 
more general mode is to fasten them with holes and 
buttons, arranging the front pleats to quite hide them, 
and so forming a kind of fly ; of course there is no 
difficulty in doing this when the garment buttons up 
to the throat as our figure illustrates, but when a col- 
lar and turn is desired, a little judgment will be neces- 
sary, the forepart of either side will have to terminate 
at the breast line as low as the roll is intended to turn , 
and the pleat made V shape at top, so as to come up 
under the lapel ; this will call in the aid of a hook and 
eye at the top of the centre pleat, where it goes over 
the button side. Sometimes when the jackets are made 
with collar and turn the front pleat is omitted. A belt 
is generally worn with this garment, and may either 
be made from the same material ; or be a fancy belt, 
made from leather or any fancy material ; this may 
either fasten with holes and buttons when made from 
the material, or a fancy buckle may be used. Small 
loops are occasionally left at the side through which 
the pleat is passed, and we have seen the belt passed 
under the pleats at waist, but this is unsatisfactory, as 
it not only destroys the sit of the pleats at waist, but 
explodes any idea that might have been previously 
entertained, that the pleats were in one piece with the 
bodice. 

Ladies' Riding Habits. 
Figs. 25 & 26. Dias. 26 & 27. Plate 14. 

The Riding Habit has always been looked upon as a 
tailor-made garment, and there seems little doubt it 
will long continue to be so, for being made as they 
frequently are, from heavy material they are much 
better manipulated by the tailor's mode of treatment, 
than the dressmaker's. In fashion, they change slowly, 
still the careful observer can easily detect the march 
of fashion, in both bodice and skirt. A few years ago 
the habit bodice was invariably made with skirts sewn 
on from the waist downwards ; that has been regarded 
as old-fashioned for sonic time now. and at. the present 
time the rival styles are, the one cut sharply over the 
hips in the style illustrated on figure 25, and the other 
continued round about (> or 7 inches below the waist as 
illustrated on figure 26. The fashionable section are 
wearing scarcely anything else but the style shown on 




figure 2<i, and in the future it will doubtless substitute 
entirely the older style, figure 25, but as they both con- 
tinue to be Avorn, Ave deem it advisable to give diagrams 
of both styles, and begin with 

Diagram 26. 

The system is practically the same as described for 
the bodice, the amount allowed for making up being 
fixed by judgment. We need not repeat the system in 
all its details, but rather treat of the special features of 
the habit as distinguished from the bodice. We will 
first note the details of the back, and by a reference to 
the diagram it will at once be gathered it is cut on the 
crease ; this was at one time looked upon as one of the 
special features of the habit, but time has changed the 
fashion even of this, and it is by no means so universal 
as it once Avas. When it is cut on the crease, it is only 
made f of an inch Avide at the Avaist, and of course this 
involves a re-adjustment of the seams, but Ave will deal 
with this presently. In order to give the waist as long 
an appearance as possible, the pleats are only com- 
menced at H inches below the natural waist, and the 
full length continued to 7 or S inches below Avaist. As 
will be gathered from the outline of diagram, the skirts 
are cut sharply over the hips ; the total Avidth at bot- 
tom of skirt Avhen made would be 4 or 4£ inches. It 
is arranged with tAvo side pleats at the bottom of side- 
seams with buttons placed, as previously noted, 1^ 
inches below the Avaist seam. The lengths beloAV the 
Avaist line are about 2 inches at the side and :i^ in the 
front. The bottom edge of sidepiece, &c, should be 
slightly rounded, so as to form one continuous curve 
when made up and aA T oid getting points at the seams. 
This is only a trifle, but it is a trifle often overlooked, 
the student occasionally drawing a freehand curve from 
front to back, in some cases ev^en omitting to re-adjust 
the length of the dart seams to each other. We will 
now proceed to deal with 

The location of the Sideseams. 

As these have a very decided effect on the artistic 
appearance, it is well to avoid extremes, at the same 
time bearing in mind what is considered beauty in the 
female form. Present day ideals point to a A - ery flat 
back in the region of the blades and a long waist ; 
hence with these points in our mind, Ave carry the side- 
seam as high as possible, and keep the sideseam flat 
but not straight, a kind of deadened curve being best ; 
a bare \ inch is taken out between the back and side- 
body at the back scye, and the sidebody is lengthened 
a little at top to provide in a certain degree for the 
shortening tendency of seaming ; 1 inch is taken out 
at the Avaist betAveen the back and sidebody, and 1 inch 



__ _ -g^jg^g ^ik-g. 





-w^^w 

TO CUTTING LADIES' GARMENTS. 




between the sidebody and sidepiece, and 1 inch between 
the sidepiece and forepart ; when the remainder neces- 
sary to reduce the waist to measure is taken out in darts, 
allowing 1^ to 2 inches for seams at the waist. The nar- 
rowness of the back at waist necessitates the sideseam 
being drawn freehand, and having located it in that 
way to measure back from 12 to 11 one inch, and 
dividing the distance from 1 1 to 3| into two equal or 
nearly equal parts, following the usual plan of making 
both sidebody and sidepiece each half an inch nar- 
rower at waist-band than on the depth of scye line. 
The spring over the hips is not so pronounced as for 
ladies' costume bodice, &c, but this is not so noticeable 
now as it would have been in the days of more promi- 
nent bustles, &c. We will now give a few 

Hints on Making. 

A waist-band is invariably placed at the waist, and 
firmly secured to the seams at the back and side, below 
which tabs are placed with either eyes or eyelets in 
them, at parts to agree with fastenings placed in the 
train ; usually they are placed one at the centre of 
back and one on either side at hips, the object of 
course being to secure the train. The bottom part of 
bodice is faced with the same material as the outside, 
about 2 inches deep at front and sides, and continuing 
straight across the back skirts ; and in putting the 
facing in the back skirts, it should be put in rather 
short, so that the tails shall curl inwards. Whalebones 
are placed at all the seams (unless the customer objects), 
none of which should come higher than the top of 
breast darts, or lower than within half an inch of the 
bottom ; the bones should be put in as long as possible, 
curving the garment to the shape of the figure pre- 
viously to fastening them, which should be done at top, 
middle, and bottom, the casings being made from sile- 
sia on the bias, and care must be exercised in sewing 
them to the seams, and full them on over the waist. 

If, as is usually the case, it is made to fasten 
with holes and buttons, it will be necessary to add 
on a button stand as illustrated on diagram, and 
for this purpose add ^ an inch on the button 
hole side, and 1 inch or more on the button 
side ; this allows of the holes coming exactly in the 
centre of the figure, and the extra button stand hides 
any possibility of the underclothing peeping through 
the ends of the holes. It will be advisable to put a V 
of silk in the button stand, as shown on the waist line, 
which allows it to go nicely to the figure at that part, and 
prevents any dragging tendency. The buttons are put 
closer together than was formerly done, which we think 
is an improvement. If made with stand collar the collar 
has hooks and eyes placed at the top to keep it fastened. 
We recently had the opportunity of inspecting a Habit 



made for a very stylish young lady by the celebrated 
firm of Wolmerhausen & Co., it had an interlining over 
the back and forepart of horse-hair, which kept it very 
firm above where the corsets reached ; it was lined 
through with silk, pleats were placed in the forepart 
lining opposite the prominence of the bust, and another 
vertically, as is now generally done in vests, running 
from shoulder downwards, and allowing ample scope 
for it to adjust itself, whilst, of course, it was put in 
very long at the waist section all round. Needless to 
remark, the sleeve linings were flash-baisted to the 
seams, both forearm and hindarm, and two or three 
small pieces of dommett serged to the scye seams on 
the top of the shoulder to facilitate the distribution of 
fulness in the sleeve head, and at the same time pro- 
duce as good form as possible. 

It may be important to give a few particulars with 
reference to 

The Materials 

Mostly used, as this work will most probably be con- 
sulted by many young men undertaking the order for a 
Riding Habit for the first time. The usual material is 
a heavy Melton, more generally black, but by no means 
always so, browns, greens, plum colours, &c, all being 
largely used. Occasionally we see one of grey Worsted, 
and now and then a drab Tweed, but both of these are 
the exception, and may for all practical purposes be 
ignored, for there can be no doubt Melton is regarded 
as the Habit cloth. For Rummer wear Vicunas and 
Twill Saxonies are often used ; but these have such a 
marked resemblance to the Melton, that Ave might 
almost put them in the same class, being only thinner. 
The edges are either single or double stitched, and in 
the case of the better Meltons the edges are left raw. 

The quantity of material required for a Habit Bodice 
is about 1^ yards ; the train taking 2^ to 2| ; but we 
deal with that in another section. 

The New Habit. 

Figure 26. Diagram 27. Plate li. 

Calling one day on Mr. George Smith, the celebrated 
Ladies' Tailor of South Molton Street, we were shown 
some fine specimens of Ladies' Tailoring, and amongst 
them the new Habit, the details of which, as he pointed 
them out to us, we took note of, and have embodied in 
the figure and diagram. They were made straight 
round the hips, and cut away in the front from just 
below the waist, just showing a little of the fancy vest 
of hunting pattern, which invariably accompanies this 
style. The lapels were somewhat heavy and opened 
rather low, above which the vest showed, introducing a 
little brightness to the dull colour of the bodice. The 



.&£& 




: 3ZT&&&0- 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




vests were mostly finished in the jockey style of step 
stand collar, and were often made from the vesting 
worn by the particular limit the lady mostly attended. 
It is unnecessary for us to go through the system as all 
the details are clearly illustrated in the diagram. The 
hack is made rather narrow and the teams adjusted 
accordingly, but both this and the general outline can 
be easily gathered from diagram 27, and if an explana- 
tion of the system is desired, it can be got by referring 
to either the jacket or the bodice. Before quitting the 
Habits, it will be as well to say a few words on the other 

Variations of Style. 

Sometimes a lady is to be seen with her Riding 
Habit made in the Newmarket style : then another has 
the part below the waist arranged as a gent's Dress 
Coat ; some others have the same same style as illus- 
trated on figure 2(i, but with the corners rounded off : 
and in many other countless little details variations 
of style are introduced. It is the exception, however, 
to see a habit bodice braided, indeed, it is so seldom 
that it gives the impression that it is one that has been 
laid by for a generation, and has been handed down 
from mother to daughter. Possibly in the future, 
braiding on Riding Habit Bodices, may be re-intro- 
duced but for the present it is obsolete. 

TVe must not omit to mention the little girl's Riding 
Bodice, seeing that so many are to be seen in the park 
of a morning. The almost universal style for girls, be- 
tween the age of six and sixteen, is the Norfolk Bodice ; 
of this jacket Ave have previously treated in detail in 
this section, and as the only special feature to be 
noticed for these girls, is the absence of breast and the 
comparatively large waist, both of which features would 
be clearly brought out by the measures taken, it will be 
unnecessary for us to do more than refer our readers to 
a few pages back, where the Norfolk Bodice is fully 
treated. 

Large Size Dress Bodice. 
Dia. 28. Plate 15. 

It is sometimes argued that we only take the truly 
proportionate figure to illustrate the workings of the 
various systems we publish, and doubtless this is to a 
certain extent true, as we look upon it as highly essen- 
tial that the cutter should form an accurate idea of 
what is a truly proportionate pattern . But of course 
that is not enough ; he must know how to provide for 
all ages and all kinds of disproportion, and our object 
at present is to help him in his treatment of at least 
one phase of this that is often met with. 

Turning over the pages of our order book to select 
a set of measures by which to draw the diagram to 



illustrate this, we come across the following : Xh scye 
depth, ir> natural waist, 22 full length, 7 across back, 
lH elbow, 2« sleeve, *f across chest, !)£ across bust, 
•12^ front shoulder, 1G^ over shoulder, 8^ neck, 18£ 
nape to nipple, 18^ nape to bottom of waist, 44 chest, 
31 waist. The lady was one of those figures which, 
though past the prime of life, yet was by no means a 
badly made figure, and such as may often be met with 
in daily practice. The waist was clearly defined and 
the bust well developed ; she might fitly be described 
as plump, sh;rt and rather stout. A glimpse at the 
measures would soon convince even the inexperienced 
cutter, that some more reliable method of fixing the 
depth of scye than a division of the breast would 
be necessary: 44 breast and 15 natural waist would 
not at all meet that method ; yet this is a very fair 
example of the measurements found in actual prac- 
tice. It is a somewhat remarkable fact that the length 
of the natural waist varies very slightly : from 14 to 
1(5 seems to embrace the entire range, and often when 
the figure gets stouter the waist gets shorter ; hence in 
ordinary figures, it will more often be found that the 
natural waist measures 14^ than 15^. It will also be 
noticed how small all the shoulder measures are in re- 
lation to the chest, as compared with the normal :!4 ; 
at the same time they are very much more square — 
both features usually found in the large size male figure, 
but in not so pronounced a degree as is here illustrated. 

The Special Features 

Of this diagram, apart from the points we have already 
noted, and which would be fully allowed for in the 
working of the system as previously described, are the 
number of darts and the arrangement of the seams of 
the sidepieces, &c. The sideseam, as outlined by 4, 2| 
and* 8f, is made as long as possible, so as to give 
the effect of length : whilst the sidepieces, being 
all cut narrow, also greatly facilitate this effect. One 
inch is taken out between all the parts at the 
waist, and so as to reduce the forepart to the size of 
waist without taking out very large darts, a third one 
is brought into play, which has a Aery much better 
effect : for, while adding length to the general appear- 
ance, it facilitates the fit over the hips, and enables a 
sufficient receptacle for the bust to be formed very 
much easier. It will be noticed that we still retain 
the straight front edge ; indeed, we deem it of greater 
importance for figures of this class than the normal ; 
as any excess of length in the front edge would now 
show itself in a sort of frill at that part. It will be 
observed that we have added 1 inch to the front shoul- 
der measure, instead of | as laid down previously ; our 
reason for doing so being to provide for the prominence, 
for the more that is added in this way the greater pro- 



e^le^e^ysivc. . 




C S^T^fe^S C - 



TO CUTTING LADIES GARMENTS 




vision will be made for the busts. The length from 
nape to prominence is applied as per dotted line, always 
adding 1 inch to the actual length taken on the figure, to 
compensate the seams on the shoulder. The same also 
applies to the waist line, which in this case drops a lit- 
tle in the front, and which drop commences from the 
side. We have found great difference to exist in the 
run of the waist line ; some ladies are very " embon- 
point," whilst others are very flat. With the former 
the waist generally runs up, whilst with the latter it 
runs down ; hence a measure to exactly locate this will 
be found a great assistance. The lower termination 
of the darts must of course be arranged in accordance 
with the figure, but under any circumstances it will 
generally be found preferable to make it rather too 
tight than too loose, as the bones, &c, in the front 
keep it from riding up round the waist. 

Hints on Making. 

Few remarks require to be made under this head 
after what we said for the normal Dress Bodice, as it 
nearly all applies with equal force to either large or 
small sizes, with the exception, perhaps, of wadding and 
padding, which we left as an open question. But in 
figures such as we are dealing with, it should be care- 
fully avoided ; indeed, anything which has a tendency 
to make the figure — which is already too big — appear 
larger, should be avoided ; and although many ladies 
of this class of figure make comfort and ease the first 
consideration, yet, as a general rule, it will be found 
they very much prefer a gaiTnent too small to one too 
large. 

The stand of the collar should not be made too deep, 
neither should there be too much fulness in the sleeve 
heads, but we shall deal with the sleeves as we proceed, 
taking one of this size as an example. Although we 
are showing the working of the system by means of 
a Dress Bodice, yet as far as the principles of fit are 
concerned, they would be applied in the same manner 
to Jackets, Ulsters and Dolmans, the variations in style 
being produced by altering the position of the seams, 
and increasing in a more or less degree the allowance 
for making. 

Vests. 
Dias. 29 to 34. Figs 27 and 28. Plate 16. 

Ladies' Vests have become so popular during the 
past few years, that we now regard them as a promi- 
nent feature in ladies' attire. Up till recently, however, 
they have more generally been imitations or false 
vests, fastened to the foreparts or inside of the jacket 
or bodice with which they were worn, and as they still 



continue to be worn in this style it will be necessary 
for us to give instructions on the mode of cutting and 
making 

Sham Vests. Diagrams 29, 30, 34. 

These are extremely simple in their construction. 
and as they admit of consi erable variety being intro- 
duced into the costume, we doubt not they will long 
continue popular. The way to cut them is to take the 
patterns of forepart and back of jacket as illustrated on 
diagram 30 ; mark round the gorge and front edge, 
and mark A B C as wide or narrow as taste may dic- 
tate. They are then made up with the usual stand 
collar and holes and buttons, and then fastened into 
the bodice, either by means of basting, holes and but- 
tons, or such mode of securing it as may be preferred. 
In this way the lady may have several different vests, 
and so introduce considerable variety in her costume. 

In diagram 29 the collar and turn is laid on the 
forepart in addition to the ordinary stand collar. It is 
cut by placing the back and forepart together, and 
marking from B to A by the point from where the turn 
is intended to start, and round to the centre of the 
back neck ; the depth of the collar and the general 
outline of the lapel is then arranged to taste. A seam 
is left as from A to B, illustrated by dotted line, to < 
allow of its being sewn on and turned over. This 
style of laid-on collar and lapel at once gives the idea 
of a vest, and if the three-corner piece A C B is put in 
of different material, this is brought out more promi- 
nently. In diagram 34 the forepart is really made up 
of two pieces instead of one, the part from A to B for- 
wards being made of fancy material, and the seam from 
A to B hidden by means of the revers. There are 
many other ways in which Sham Vests are adapted to 
both Jackets and Costumes, but we need not describe 
them in detail, as the same principle applies to them 
all, and doubtless our readers will find these remarks 
quite sufficient to guide them in their Droduction, so 
we will proceed to deal with Vests when made and 
worn as separate garments. We will give two styles, 
both of which are very popular at present, as illustra- 
tions of the style-of Vest dealt with in the diagrams. 

The System. Diagram 32. 

We have not given any special instructions for 
measuring, as the ordinary bodice measures will do 
well, with the addition of length to opening and full 
length taken from nape. 

Commence at top of back, and draw lines W 2^, 
W 15| ; from W to «£ is the depth of scye ; continue 
to 15rr the natural waist length, and come in 2 inches, 
and draw line from W to 2, which finds the back seam 
from W to 2\ is one-sixth neck, from which 



. ^I^Jg^kkS, .- 





-■TXTS&GT?V 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




come up | ; sweep from point 1 by half the over shoul- 
der measure, and measure from f to S one-fourth 
breast measure {i.e., the half breast) plus ^ inch, which 
finds the width of shoulder ; now measure from 1 to 

at bottom of scye, half the breast plus f inch, and 
from 2 to i)| the half waist plus ^ inch, and complete 
the outline of back as shown. It will be noticed the 
bottom part of the back is cut separately ; this is done 
with the view of providing sufficient spring over the 
hips ; 1 inch is taken out at waist line as shown, and 
the sides sprung out as diagram shows. This skirt is 
generally cut about 2 inches wide. We now come to 

The Forepart. Diagram 33. Figure 28. 

Continue the lines 8£, 15^, right across ; square 
down from 0, and hollow the side of forepart at waist 

1 inch. Xow measure across from to 9f, f inch 
more than the half breast measure ; then measure back 
from this point to 2\ the across chest measure, less \ 
inch, measuring back from Of ; now sweep from this 
point {2\) by the front shoulder measure, less the 
width of back neck, to find point F ; then add f to 
this, and sweep again from 9|, and locate the neck point 
where these two arcs intersect each other. Xow mea- 
sure from 1 to S on the back ; deduct the amount 
from the over shoulder measure, and sweep by the 
remainder from 2£, but putting the finger on the tape 
about lh inches above 2^ ; measure from F to I) one- 
fourth breast plus ]- inch. The scye may now be com- 
pleted, keeping it very hollow just above 2\. Mark 
out from F to X V one-sixth neck, and draw a line 
from X V through !)| to find the run of the front. 
The waist is now suppressed to size by means of darts, 
allowing about 1 inch for the seams; it only no;? 
remains to fix the length, which, in the absence of any 
measure being taken, should be made about 3| inches 
below the line of waist at front, and 2 at the sides, but 
if a measure of length has been taken, use it and allow 
1 inch for making up. The Vest is now complete if 
only intended to hook an 1 eye, but if it is intended to 
button, add on a button-stand of £ inch as shown on 
diagram 31. 

Variations in Style. 

These may be produced in the same way as for gents, 
and in the case of no collar being sewn on, it will be 
necessary to cut at least ^ inch on in the hollow of 
gorge, so that it will come as high up the neck as if it 
had a collar. We show the two leading styles both by 
figures and diagrams, which will be sufficient to illus- 
trate both the cutting and the style of the finished 



garment. It will be noticed in diagram 



which 



illustrates the D.B. Vest that the lapel is sewn on ; 
tl lis is not absolutely necessary, but is done more with 




the view of giving effect, though it will not produce a 
better fit ; there is f inch taken out between the fore- 
part and lapel, which may be done as a fish, or the 
lapel cut off entirely. The outline of the lapel being 
entirely a matter of taste, it would not be wise for us 
to lay down any fixed quantities, as circumstances alter 
the style and outline ; but, as a general rule, they 
should be wider at the chest than the waist, but how- 
ever it is cut, the buttons must be set as far behind the 
breast line as the eye of the hole is in front. 

At the present time double-breasted Vests are very 
fashionable, some of those in wear beiug made up with 
skirts after the style of the Xewmarket Bodice, but this 
is perhaps one of fashion's fleeting fancies. 

Hints on Making. 

As a general rule, ladies' Vests are made in the same 
way as gents'. The back is made from Silesia or Silk, 
and tapes placed in lieu of buckle and strap to tie it in 
if necessary. A watch pocket is generally inserted just 
above the prominence of breast, and occasionally 
pockets put in at the waist. The foreparts are lined 
and faced in the usual way, the same as gents', whilst 
the washing materials are made up without any inter- 
lining, so as to facilitate the washing, &c. Bones are 
seldom used in vests, though we sec no reason why 
they should not be used if desired, as vests are really 
only slight variations from bodices. 

These garments are being largely patronised by 
ladies for equestrienne purposes, many of whom are 
made from the regular hunt vesting as used by gents, 
but there is also a great demand for them for ordinary 
wear. 

Vest Front for Jacket. 

Diagram 31. Figure: The Brighton. Plate 5a. 

This is cut the same as the forepart illustrated on dia- 
gram 31 and fastened to the side and shoulder seams of 
the Jacket they are to be worn with. Care must of course 
be taken to see that the sideseam is arranged in har- 
mony with that of the Jacket, so that if it is made 
more forward or backward, the width of Vest forepart 
may also be varied in like manner ; but this can easily 
be arranged by placing the breast line of Jacket on the 
top of the Vests, and adjusting them together in that 
way. We have previously referred to these on page 14, 
so that we will not deal with them further than to 
point out the opportunity it offers to give effect, by 
the introduction of different coloured cloth or some 
ornamental design of braiding, whilst at the same time 
they allow of a loose-fronted Jacket being worn and kept 
close to the waist, &c, without its being apparently 
fastened, the vest holding it secure to the back and sides. 



Section Four. 

Ladies' Ulsters. 

Diagram 35, Plate 17. Figure 29, Plate 20. 

We will introduce this section with the single-breast- 
ed, buttoning-through Ulster, as that probably is the 
style more than any other patronised by the fair sex. 
This section is undoubtedly one of the most important 
in the book, and will probably be referred to more than 
any of the others, for there must be few tailors, indeed, 
who do not get an occasional order for a Lady's Ulster, 
for the ladies have become so thoroughly charmed with 
the style in which tailors turn out overgarments in 
general, and Ulsters in particular, that even though 
they may prefer the flimsy finery of the dressmaker for 
their costumes, they come to us for their garments of 
this class. In measuring, it is an advantage to get the 
full length of side as well as the full length of front 
from nape, in addition to the measures we have pre- 
viously explained, and which it will not be necessary 
fur us to again recapitulate, so will at once proceed to 
deal with 

The System. Diagram 35. 

Draw line 0, 2\ ; C ; to 2| below f is ^ neck ; 
from to 2£ on back seam is 4, natural waist ; to 8 the 
depth of scye ; to 15^ the natural waist ; to 22\ the 
prominence of hip ; and to C the full length, plus 
seams : come in from 15^1 iuch, and draw back seam 
from to 1, springing it out below through point 22h, 
and running through gradually as shown ; curve the 
back neck by coming up f above 2\. About 2 inches 
below line 2^ measure the width of back, pins two 
seams, and curve back scye slightly out to find point 6^, 
and then draw shoulder seam from £ through W. Now 
measure across from \ to 20^ the half chest measure, 
plus 2\ inches for making ; from 20| measure back to 
\2\ the across chest measure, or the average between 
the across chest and across bust measures ; deduct the 
width of back neck 2\ from front shoulder, 12, and by 
the remainder, \)\, sweep from \2\ : having done this, 
add | inch to this 9$, making loj, and sweep by that 
from 2<»i, and wherever these arcs or sweeps intersect 
each other, locates the neck point F, and from which 
measure across to V ^ neck, and draw breast line from 
V through 20£. If, however, the lady is flat at the 
stomach, it will be found advisable to come back i inch 
at waist, as from * to 21^, and draw the remainder of 
breast line from 2\)\ through 2\\. The effect of this 
.will be to make the front slightly round at 20^, which 

&4L 



make 4 7£ half an inch 
7 j 8j ; make 



round must lie well worked back over the breast in 
making up. 

Now measure from ^ at s to W, deduct that from 
the over shoulder, and by the remainder sweep from 
12^ to find point D, putting the finger on the tape 1| 
inches up before sweeping as previously described ; get 
the width of shoulder by the back, making the front £ 
inch narrower, and shape the scye as shown, keeping it 
as hollow as possible above 12^ and well above 8. The 
+ at V may be made a pivot to sweep the gorge from 
F to I. We now come to 

The Location of the Seams, 

And here we apply much the same method as we adopt- 
ed with the Jackets, indeed an Ulster is very little dif- 
ferent from a long Jacket. Come back from 1 2\ 1 
inch, and divide the distance between \ and 11| into 
3 parts, equally or nearly so ; make the back from 1 to 3 
half what it is from \ to 4^, and shape the sideseam as 
shown, continuing below the waist at right angles ; 
come in from 3 to 4 1 inch 
less than 4^, X ; take out 1 inch between 
8\ 11^ half an inch less than 8, 1 1^, and take out 1^ 
inches ; now measure up the waist, and take out the 
surplus in a dart after allowing lh or 2 inches for ^ 
making up ; the dart should be placed to run parallel 
with breast line, running rather towards the front at 
the bottom, and at the waist it should be about 2 inches 
from the breast line. 

The Spring over the Hips. 

Measure across from 22\ to 24, and see how that 
corresponds with the hip measure, and say 3 inches, 
most probably it will be small ; if it is, add on two- 
thirds at 6| 8tt, and one-third at 2 3. The mode of 
extending the various seams is to draw a line from 3 
through 2 for the sidebody ; square down from mid- 
way between 1\ and 8 j , and put half the spring to be 
located there on either side of H, and then draw a line 
straight from 1\ through 6f, and from sj through 8| 
on either side. Now, if you have the length of side 
and front, use them to get the run of the bottom of 
skirt ; if you have not got these measures, measure 
down from the waist line at side 1 inch shorter, and at 
•front 2 inches shorter than the back. Add on a but- 
ton stand all down the front of 1} inches. The finish 
of the back varies so much, that it is difficult to say 
which is the most popular ; the diagram illustrates the 
necessary allowance (1^ inches) for a plain pleat or 
opening. 



fe 




Hints on Making. 

A facing is generally put down the front right to 
the bottom, but it is not often taken through the shoul- 
der : the body lining extends usually to line 2'>\ 24 at 
hips, and in putting this in, care must be taken to give 
plenty of length over the waist. The buttons down 
the front are usually terminated about 24, but tabs and 
small buttons are often put to fasten the garment 
below. Carefully press any fulness there may be at 
the bottom termination of dart well towards the side, 
as any excess of room or fulness here is to be carefully 
avoided. The sleeve is generally pitched at the side- 
seam, and of course the usual care used in putting it 
in. If any wadding is used at any part, see that it is 
carefully graded away, so that its existence cannot be 
detected. The usual precaution of keeping the collar 
long in the hollow of gorge must not be forgotten, as 
it applies universally. We will not dwell further on 
the points to be observed in making, but proceed to 
deal with 

Diagram 36, Plate 18 ; Figure 30, Plate 20, 

Which illustrate a double-breasted Ulster with lapels 
sewn on, and foreparts cut across from the bottom of 
the back dart ; it is i-eally more with the view of illus- 
trating this latter phase than any other, we have drawn 
this diagram, for one of the worst difficulties expe- 
rienced by all ladies' tailors in these garments, is to 
get rid of the superfluous material below the waist in 
front, which invariably locates itself if the front edge 
has been kept straight, and" proper provision made for the 
breast by means of the darts. We know in practice that 
suppression at one part causes fulness at another, and 
if that suppression is done in the form of a fish, it 
throws fulness both above and below, and as the breasts 
are usually much more prominent than the stomach, it 
follows as a natural consequence that there is too much 
material below the waist in front. There are two ways 
of avoiding this difficulty. The first is illustrated on 
diagram 35, and is the one mostly used in the country, 
and consists of coming back from the straight breast line 
\ an inch at the waist, and drawing it through to bot- 
tom. This method produces a slightly round front edge, 
but if the round is only properly drawn in and work- 
ed back, and the front edge brought to a straight line, 
and the fulness pressed back over the breast, it answers 
satisfactorily. The second method is undoubtedly the 
best, and is the one mostly used by the ladies' tailors 
in the West End, and is illustrated on 

Diagram 36. 

The body part is got on exactly the same lines as 
described for diagram :;."», with the exception that the 

*rk^, s^a^^s^ 



front line is drawn straight through from V to 22h, 
and the waist then suppressed to the necessary si/A' by 
means of darts. These are terminated about 2\ or 3 
inches below the waist line by the foreparts being cut 
across in a nearly horizontal direction from the front, 
when the surplus material may then be passed away in 
the front. It is best to arrange this cut to slant 
slightly downwards, as it produces a better effect. The 
lengths on either side of the darts must be adjusted to 
each other, and this will produce sufficient space for 
pointing up the overlap beyond the centre line to meet 
and form a continuation of the lapel as illustrated on 
diagram. It will be found advisable when cutting 
D.B. garments of this class to spring the forepart out 
from the waist line downwards a trifle, taking off at 
the dart below 21 whatever has been added below 22i, 
and in cutting 

The Lapel 

Use the front edge as the guide for shaping the sewing 
to edge, and finish to taste. There is no doubt a good 
deal of style may be introduced by means of the lapel, 
so it will be well to give it careful attention : it is 
the almost invariable rule to make it narrow at the 
waist and wide at chest. We illustrate on the diagram 
one of the most popular modes of finishing these. Silk 
facings are put on the lapels : and, as with gentlemen's 
coats, sometimes the binding is put on the top of the 
silk, and at others the silk is sewn on the top of the 
braid and coming to the top of the lapels. We prefer 
to see the facing put over the braid, but there are 
many of our best cutters who prefer the other way, so 
our readers will be able to take their choice. 

In all other respects diagram 36 is produced on the 
same lines as described for diagram 85, so that it will 
be unnecessary for us to dwell on them here, but at 
once proceed to deal with some of the 

Varieties of Ladies' Ulsters. 

We must first thoroughly understand how to infuse 
the principles of fitting the figure : and having done 
this, to vary according to the fashion desired. It is 
now a generally acknowledged truth that the ladies' 
tailor must do something more than fit the body. The 
seams must be located with due regard to harmony and 
proportion, and, whenever possible, going over the 
prominences and hollows of the body ; for then, plain 
sewing only is necessary, whereas as soon as the seams 
are placed on either side of a prominence, then that 
part which goes beyond the prominence must be fulled 
on in order to get the receptacle for it in the proper 
place, but this we have dealt with in the letterpress 
referring to diagram :>.">. 

Then we have to consider our customers' tastes and 




wishes, for we must remember we are making the gar- 
ment for them, and as it must always he our aim to 
please them, we should lay ourselves out to understand 
what they wish ; and though customers will sometimes 
ask for garments quite unsuitable to their form, still, if 
they have fully made up their minds, the best course 
for us to adopt will be to modify the style in such a 
way as to make it as far as possible in harmony with 
the figure. It is in this way the tailor with taste and 
artistic talent shows his skill, in sending forth his cus- 
tomers in becoming garments. When they come to 
him with their minds fixed on a certain style, if it is 
unsuitable they can modify it by the material and 
trimming ; or, if they have decided on material, he can 
reduce the unbecoming nature of the pattern by the 
infusion of a style having an opposite tendency. The 
styles we have selected to illustrate the varieties of 
Ladies' Ulsters are 

The Loose-fronted D.B., 
Diagram 38. Plate 19 : Figure 31, Plate 20, 

And the Cross-over Front. The former is very popular 
just at present, and as we pointed out in dealing with 
Ladies' Jackets, the front must be straight, that is, the 
hi east line, but as the Costume Skirts are worn so close- 
fitting at present, and ladies' breasts being invariably 
more prominent than their stomachs, we have left a 
little curve just at the top from 2(H to V, owing to the 
difficulty experienced in avoiding superfluous material 
on the stomach (see diagram) ; but, wherever pos- 
sible, this round should be drawn in, and the fulness 
well pressed back on to the breast. To accomplish 
this, it will be advisable to take out a V at the top of 
the breast line, and cut the lapel a trifle short. But 
when the garment is intended to turn high up, it 
will be better to omit the V, the tendency of which is 
to shorten the outside edge. As will be noticed, the 
fish is omitted from the forepart at waist. But when 
it is desired to have the garment very close-fitting at the 
sides, a fish is taken out as per dotted lines ; and when 
dealing with a figure with prominent breasts, it will 
be very advantageous in providing extra room at that 
part. We should, however, advise this to be left till 
the trying on, as it does not suit all types alike. Then 
the one side can be pinned up on the figure, and judg- 
ment brought to bear as to which produces the effect 
desired in the best way, and arrange accordingly. 

The Gross-over Front, 
Diagram 39, Plate 19 ; Figure 32, Plate 20, 



Is a style which seems more than likely to become a 
prominent feature in fashionable Ulsters. When 
^ trimmed with fur, as shown on our illustration, it is 



very effective. The diagram is self-explanatory in this 
case, and shows how the overlapping part is added on ; 
and though these garments are generally made close- 
fitting, still a moderate looseness at the waist rather 
adds to than detracts from their beauty. The under 
forepart is generally cut to the breast line only, and a 
series of hooks and eyes put down to fasten it at that 
part, so that an ornamental clasp or button at the side 
will be quite sufficient to fasten it. This will be readily 
understood by a reference to the figure and diagram. 
We will now direct attention to the 

Variations in the Back, Diagram 37, 

Necessary for Dolmans and Winged Cloaks. As they 
will form the subject of another section, a reference to 
diagram 37 will show the plan adopted, viz., continuing 
the sideseam right through to the scye point of shoulder 
of back, which part is added to the sidebody when 
sleeves are worn under the wing, but more frequently 
the forepart and sidebody are cut away at the scye, 
when all that is necessary will be to make a mark on 
the back where the sidebody is to begin, in order to 
retain the balance. This, however, is a feature which 
more correctly comes within the scope of the section on 
Dolmans, though of course that is no reason why, if 
customers so desired it, the sideseam should not ter- 
minate at the point of, or half way across, the shoulder 
seam ; indeed, this feature was very prominently 
brought out in the fashions of a few years ago, and 
may be revived at any time. 

There are doubtless many other variations we might 
dwell on in reference to ladies' Ulsters, but we will con- 
clude this section by a few remarks on 

Newmarket Ulsters 

In their various styles of S.B. and D.B., as they are so 
very popular at present. These are cut on exactly the 
same lines as laid down for Newmarket Jackets, and 
which our readers will find fully described in the section 
treating of Jackets. All that requires to be done is to 
extend the skirt to the length desired. It will always 
be well for the cutter to bear in mind that the ladies' 
Ulster does not bear the same relation to the ladies' 
Jacket, that the Chesterfield does to the Lounge for 
gentlemen ; on the contrary, the ladies' Ulster is in 
reality nothing more than a very long Jacket, preferably 
cut a trifle easier on account of it being often made 
from thicker material and being more used in Winter 
when thicker underclothing is being worn. 

We must now turn our attention to sleeves, as they 
play such an important part in Dolman cutting ; and 
before we proceed to describe the method of producing 
them we must fully explain the sleeve problem. 

D 





Section Five. 

Sleeves. 

Diagrams 40 to 52. Plates 21. 22 and 23. 

The sleeve problem has been so often brought before 
the trade as an unsolved one, that cutters are well ac- 
quainted with the difficulties that present themselves 
in its consideration. Further, it is more than likely 
the stern realities of daily practice have brought them 
experiences other than pleasant, and caused them to 
think a good many times over the remedies so much 
required. It is generally acknowledge that, to get a 
really perfect fitting sleeve, the scye should be located 
as nearly as possible at the natural juncture with the 
arm and body. This is imperative at the front of scye 
and at the bottom of scye : but with the width of back 
it is somewhat different, since loss of width to back 
can be compensated for in the sleeve ; and when we 
consider the decided preference shown for narrow backs 
in ladies' garments, the importance of the system being 
arranged to provide for this in its ordinary workings 
will at once be seen. This, we claim, has been satis- 
factorily accomplished in the sleeve system we are now 
submitting. We fully illustrate its workings in regard 
to this feature towards the end of this section, but 
before our readers can consider that, it will be neces- 
sary for them to acquire the system in its simplicity, 
consequently we begin with 

The Jacket Sleeve 

System as .illustrated on diagram 41. The first thing 
we have to do is to take the cut out pattern of the 
body part. (Diagram 4<> illustrates the scye of Dia. 1, 
Plate 4). We begin by drawing a line at right angles 
to the depth of scye line, and touching the most back- 
ward point of the scye at 11 (see dot and dash line) : 
then another line is drawn at the front of scye, and the 
distance these two lines are apart is the first quantity 
taken ; this is applied to diagram 41 by making from 
to 5i this quantity. We now wish to get the balance 
of the sleeve, and to do this we must locate the two 
pitches ; the forearm pitch is always placed | of an 
inch above the level of the scye as at B ; the hindarm 
pitch may be fixed according to taste ; a very good 
plan for Jackets and Ulsters is to fix it at the top of 
sideseam. The pitches located, we take the square and 
let either arm rest on a pitch as at A and B ; now let 
the arm at C come forward or backward in accordance 
with the style of sleeve desired, always keeping the 
square touching these two pitches, when it will be 
found the more forward the square is brought, the 



greater the distance will be from E to B, and vice versa. 
It must always be remembered, in arranging the pitch 
of the sleeve, that the forward-hanging sleeve will have 
more superfluous cloth at top of hindarm, though it 
will give much more freedom than the backward hang- 
ing one. Having arranged the square in position, 
note the amount from B to E, and apply this to dia- 
gram 41 by measuring back from 5| to 1^, and square 
across to 8. Now measure the scye from A to 11, and 
from 22 to B, straight across — not round — the scye ; 
whatever that measures, apply from H to 8 ; from 
to 4 is half this distance, which in ordinary cases finds 
the top of sleeve head ; draw a line from 5^ to 4, and 
also draw a line from it to B of diagram 40, and what- 
ever the scye is hollowed from this line, as at E, add 
on that amount of round to the sleeve at \. The 
sleeve head may now be drawn from 5^ to 4 and 8, 
when the next operation is to mark off the length to 
elbow and full length. Measure the width of back and 
apply it to 8, and measure on to elbow, allowing three 
seams for making up, and on to full length in the same 
way. For an ordinary close-fitting sleeve, hollow the 
forearm 2 inches, then measure from 2 to 8 half the 
size of sleeve desired, plus two seams ; in the same 
manner apply the width of cuff. Get the angle of cuff 
by squaring across from hindarm, taking the angle 
from elbow downwards as the guide. Draw the fore- 
arm straight from 5^ to 2, and from 2 to C, and on no 
account hollow it between as an examination of the 
arm will at once show it to be round between elbow 
and wrist, and to cut a hollow to fit it is quite a mis- 
take. Tone down the angle at 2, and the topside 
sleeve is complete. 

To get the under sleeve, measure round the bottom 
of scye from A to B, ami apply from 5^ in the direc- 
tion indicated by 7 : sweep from the elbow at 8 to get 
the length of hindarm, and finish as per diagram. The 
amount of hollow required at £ is got by squaring 
across from the forearm pitch at right angles from the 
square when placed to find the balance as illustrated on 
diagram 4o ; and provided the scye is not made too 
deep for the figure, the amount of hollow may be 
gauged by the distance between the square line and 
bottom of scye. 

The Ulster sleeve is practically the same as the 
Jacket sleeve, though it may he preferrable to give it a 
trifle extra width at the elbow and cuff ; but as this 
is a feature always governed by individual taste, it is 
impossible to lay down any definite guide in this par- 
ticular, except actual measurement which plan the cut- 
ter should always adopt in all cases of doubt. The 
quantities marked on the diagram being the usual sizes 
for material of ordinary thickness. 



'i^-g 



. fJL& X&i*?,. 




Ladies' Bodice Sleeve. Dia 43. Plate 21. 

If our readers have thoroughly grasped the principles 
involved in the Sleeve System, they will soon recognise 
they are identical with those employed to cut the hodice 
sleeve. The width across the scye is used to find the 
distance from 0, 6 : the sleeve pitches are located — 
the forearm | of an inch up from bottom, and the 
hindarm, in this instance, at the second sideseam, 
which may of course be varied ; hut this mode is most 
in accordance with the views of ladies at present, 
the topside sleeve being made much wider than half, 
and consequently it will be noticed a great difference 
exists in the quantity < n the square when taking the 
balance of the sleeve : the first amount for this sleeve 
is <'., the second is 2^, and this of course makes the 
sleeve head very round, in locating point 5, make it 
rather less than half 3^, 10* ; proceed with the elbow 
as before described, measuring from 2 to 7i* half the 
size the elbow is desired, plus two seams ; then come 
out from 7^ to 8^ 1 inch", or as much as it is desired 
the topside sleeve shall be wider, when of course a simi- 
lar quantity is taken off the under sleeve, as from 7^ 
to t'.i. Point 7i should be used as the pivot to sweep 
§ from 10^ to get the top of hindarm of undersleeve. 

Puffed Sleeve Heads, Dia. 43, Plate 21. 

Are su very popular at present, that no description of a 
system for sleeves would be complete without an expla- 
nation of the mode of producing them. First sweep by 
the elbow at *h from 10^ in the direction indicated by 
dotted lines 1^, and go out from 10t three times, or 
very nearly three times, the amount of puff desired, 
and add on an equal amount of round to the top above 
5, thus : suppose an extra | inch of round is desired 
to the sleeve head, addon 1| inches as indicated by 
the dot and dash line. Some may consider this an 
excessive allowance, but when they remember the puff 
must be provided for on both sides, that is, up and 
down, they will at once see that twice is the least pos- 
sible quantity, and to this must be added an allowance 
for the hollowing tendency of fulling in the sleeve 
head ; for whenever a part is fulled on or drawn in, 
the round is apparently much reduced. 

Sleeves for a large size Dress Bodice. 

Diagrams 44 and 45. Plate 22. 

In order to fully illustrate this, we have taken the 
scye of dia. 2s, and applied the system m exactly the 
same way, with the result of diagram 15. But here 
we should use a little; judgment, for we know ladies of 
this class are usually very square shouldered and short 
Kicked, so that it would be our duty to keep the ful- 
ness of sleeve head as little as possible, in order to pre- 

.9^r< 



vent anything that would in the slightest degree raise 
the shoulders ; so we should take off | or 1 inch of 
round from the top of the sleeve head as illustrated by 
the dot and dash lines : this would enable the sleeve 
to be put in almost plain, and would be quite satisfac- 
tory, as the bones of the shoulder of this class of figure 
do not show any prominence at this part, the surround- 
ing flesh mJung shoulders comparatively flat. 

Diagram 23, Plate 11, illustrates a sleeve suitable for 
check material. It is produced in the same way as 
diagram 4:>, with the top and undersides grown to- 
gether to elbow, a fish being taken out under the arm 
to make it shapely at back. We will now give a few 

Hints on Making. 

If there are buttons and holes at either fore or hind- 
arm seams, a button-stand must be left on that side 
the buttons are intended to go on. In putting the 
linings in, always keep them rather long than short, and 
always flash baste them over the seams, in the case of 
the Dress Bodice Sleeve, the extra length in the hind- 
arm of topsides must be put on at the elbow in fulness. 
In patting the sleeve into the scye, keep it close round 
the back scye as from A to C, dia. 42, keep it fair round 
the bottom from A to W, and begin the fulness a little 
below D, and terminate it well above the forearm pitch. 

If there is a moderate amount of fulness to go in the 
sleeve head, it may be drawn in with a running thread 
and pressed away before the sleeve is put in, but if 
there is more than can be successfully arranged in this 
way, put it in in little pleats, and if the sleeve be de- 
sired to appear puffed, do not open the seam at sleeve 
head, which would press it flat, and so destroy the end 
in view : a judicious use of canvas or horsehair, or 
even a little roll of (doth or wadding, will be a great 
assistance to produce a good puffed sleeve head. 

The Sleeve Problem. 
Diagrams 46 and 47. Plate 22. 

The problem which has puzzled the profession during 
the past fifty years, more than any other, is simply 
this : how to compensate in the sleeve for variations in 
the width of the back : and though in practice the 
difficulty has been invariably surmounted, yet when the 
various processes have been tested theoretically, they 
have all been more or less deficient in meeting the self- 
evident needs ; and the measure of success their authors 
have achieved has doubtless been largely due to the 
elasticity of the material and the judicious manipula- 
tion that the workmen have put into the garment. 

Let us take a glance at diagram 4(J, and see the 
varying widths of back marked s, '.), 10. These repre- 
sent backs of an inch difference in the width — !) is the 
normal, 8 the wide, and in the narrow. Xow it is 




-^^rajfer^- 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




evident, that when the arm rests at the side, this 
variation is one of width or circumference from centre 
of hack to centre of chest, as well as length from the 
goip' over the shoulder to the wrist, for a wide or nar- 
row back, invariably means a Avide or narrow shoulder : 
but when the arm is raised as it is when the customer 
is being measured for the length of sleeve, what was 
circumference becomes at once length : hence whatever 
is lost to the back must be compensated for in both 
length and width, and this the system of itself works 
out admirably, forming the sleeve for the wide back 
flat, and the one for the narrow back with a lot of ful- 
ness ; this is a necessity in tailoring wherever applied, 
if the seam does not go exactly over the prominence it 
is desired to provide for, hence the various modes of 
manipulation needed to suit different styles of cutting. 
It is, of course, too much to expect that garments cut 
with extremely wide or narrow backs can have sleeA es 
made to tit as nicely as those cut a natural width ; the 
prominence of the shoulder must be provided for', 
necessitating in. the case of narrow backs a much larger 
amount of fulness ; whilst, if the back and shoulders 
were excessively wide, the sleeve would need to go in 
plain or even positively tight. 

Diagram 47. Plate 22 

Illustrates the three styles of sleeve heads, and it will 
be readily seen that as the back is made an inch wider 
or narrower, the distance across the scye would be that 
much more or less. This is evidenced as from to 
4^, 5|, (>^, and producing the amount necessary to fill 
up the round of the shoulder, and as the scye increases 
in size as the back is made narrower, and vice versa, so 
the measure from back pitch to front is made to vary 1 
inch for every inch of difference in the back ; the pitch 
of the sleeve being kept on a horizontal line makes a 
difference of a \ inch whenever the back is varied, as in 
the present case ; hence 0, 4, \\, 4^. The topside is 
naturally the part that is the most affected by varia- 
tions in the back, but the underpart also needs some 
changes, necessitating the use of judgment in the sleeve 
balance as found by the square, in the working of the 
system, which naturally produces a slightly larger 
under sleeve for the narrow back. The variations to 
be introduced by the aid of judgment are shown on 

Diagram 48, 



And consists of not hollowing it out 80 much for the 
narrow back. The dotted line shows the changes to 
make for the narrow back, the dot and dash line illus- 
trates the normal, and the solid line the wide back. 
These variations are necessary to allow the arm being 
brought forward or raised, for it must always be re- 



membered the arm is the freest of all the members of 
the body, moving backwards, forwards, up and down, 
in a manner which defies the adjustability of the most 
elastic materials : consequently we have occasionally to 
err on the side of a little too much material, to permit 
these movements in garments held closely to the waist, 
otherwise a grand split would be the result, especially 
if the scye happened to be a trifle too deep. This is 
very important in Riding Habits, as the lady invariably 
lifts her arms well up in the act of mounting, hence a 
too deep scye and an under sleeve too much hollowed 
is to be specially avoided. Some ladies, however, are 
content if their jackets fit nice and clean at the back 
scye and do not require to raise their arms, trusting to 
the elasticity of the material for those occasions when 
this is necessary. For such, the under sleeve should be 
well hollowed and made slightly shorter and strained 
up to the hindarm of top sleeve when making. 

Variations in Style. 

The fancy style of sleeve head, which, during the 
past year or two, has been received with so much 
favour, has made the sleeve problem easier. The 
slashed sleeve head, the pleated topside, those arranged 
with sleeve capes, as well as the high puffed sleeves, all 
have the same result, though the extreme to which 
they are carried clearly indicate that the original pur- 
pose of merely providing sufficient room for the shoulder 
has been lost sight of, and fashion has been allowed to 
hold the reins of fancy. 

Variations in the width of the elbow should be made 
equally at fore and hindarms, though the preference 
should be given to the hindarm, to make the larger 
share of the increase, and the forearm to decrease. 
Variations in the width of cuff should be made one- 
third at forearm and two-thirds at hindarm. 

The New Sleevelet. Diagram 52. 

A fashion has been introduced during the past few 
seasons of putting a loose sleeve on the top of the ordi- 
nary sleeve, forming a kind of sleeve cape. The cutting 
of this is very simple, but it may be well to give it a place 
in this work. A reference to diagram 52 will show how 
to cut it : all that is necessary is to put the top and 
underside sleeve together at hindarm, and either ar- 
range the elbow to touch, as in the present case, or if 
any amount of drapery is desired at the back, to arrange 
it open at elbow accordingly. The outline may be 
completed by drawing the forearm straight down from 
forearm to cuff, or cut as illustrated ; the shape at the 
bottom is also a matter of taste. This diagram ex- 
plains itself, so we will not dwell on it further than to 
note that in addition to illustrating how to cut the new_ 



■^§^W" 



TO CUTTING LADIES GARMENTS 




sleevelet, it a'so illustrates bow ;i loose blouse sleeve 
may be cut without hindarm seam, the width at the 
bottom being gathered in to a baud. There is another 
style of sleevelet, which so very closely resembles this 
that we have illustrated it on the same page, although 
it partakes very largely of the cape style. 

The Cape Sleevelet. Diagram 50. 

This is a combination of forepart and sleeve, and 
partakes very much of the Dolman Cape. It is cut by 
taking an ordinary forepart and laying the sleeve down 
on the forepart pitch, so that it overlaps from A to B 
1 inch, letting point F come in the natural hanging 
position of sleeve, but this may be varied if it is desired 
to have drapery at the side for ease. &c, then F may 
be brought nearer to G. Having arranged this, lay 
the undersleeve down as per dotted lines, and arrange 
D E H to taste. This style of sleevelet is worn on both 
Ulsters and Jackets, and has this advantage, that in 
the front it looks like a caped garment, whilst behind 
it looks very much like an ordinary sleeve. In making, 
they are sewn in with the gorge, shoulder, and scye, 
and as a general rule are left quite loose below the scye, 
though occasionally they are fastened at the side. We 
will now conclude this section on sleeves by giving the 
remedy for some of the priucipal 

Defects in the Fitting of Sleeves. 

This will put our readers in possession of the lead- 
ing principles, for a very" important lesson is to be 
learnt from a defect, if it is only thoroughly studied 
and the principle mastered ; for in cutting, however, 
perfect a system may be. it is necessary for those who 
use it successfully to fully grasp the principles involved 
— for the system is. after all, only the tool which needs 
the hand, the eye and the heart to direct and use it to 
meet all cases satisfactorily. 

Greases across the top of forearm. 

Diagram 51. 

These very unsightly creases are generally the result 
of an insufficient depth between the top of hindarm to 
the top of forearm, or to use another term, incorrect 
balance : the same might be effected by taking a good 
fitting sleeve, cutting the hindarm across and taking 
out a wedge. It is most apparent when the arm is 
brought forward, as in the act of writing and almost 
entirely vanishes when the hands are clasped behind. 
This defect is bound to exist in a more or less degree 
in every sleeve, but we should always aim at reducing 
it to a minimum. If it should be found to exist to a 
degree which is not only unsightly but uncomfortable. 




the easiest way to alter is to lower the forearm as from 
G to H, diagram 51, which practically amounts to the 
same as if a wedge had been inserted to the hindarm 
seam to nothing at G : though in one case the forearm 
is shortened, and in the other the hindarm is lengthen- 
ed, the relation existing between the two seams is iden- 
tical in both cases, the length being easily adjusted if a 
turn up has been left at the bottom of cuff. The oppo- 
site defect to this is a dragging from forearm to elbow, 
diagram 51. In this defect a most uncomfortable pres- 
sure is felt when the arms rest at the sides, but plenty 
of ease exists for the arm being brought forward ; there 
is a lot of fulness and foul material at the top of hind- 
arm, and a general tendency for the cuff to stand away 
from the hand. This latter effect is also produced by 
a different cause — viz., the forearm cut too hollow 
between elbow and hand (as shown from F to V, dia- 
gram 4!i), the dotted line showing the remedy. It 
should always be borne in mind that the sleeve between 
the elbow and cuff at forearm should be cut straight, 
as illustrated by the solid line between F and V. To 
return to our defect, just as the creases across the fore- 
arm are cured by lowering the forearm, this would be 
remedied by raising it, but as this is not practicable in 
the made up garment, we give what we term a negative 
alteration— viz., lower the hindarm as shown by dotted 
lines P to 0, diagram 51, the lowering of the hindarm 
having practically the same effect as raising the fore- 
arm, with the exception of the length of sleeve, which 
may be adjusted at cuff, as previously explained. 

Creases in forearm and elbow. 

Ladies frequently wear very tight-fitting sleeves, 
and if these are cut too straight, there is not sufficient 
length at the elbow" for the arm to bend, which either 
results in a split at the elbow or a quantity of super- 
fluous length forming in folds at the bend of the arm. 
To remedy this in the made up garment is somewhat 
difficult, in fact, if there is no inlay in the forearm it 
cannot be treated properly, though it may be relieved 
by lowering the forearm in a slight degree, as shown 
from G to H, diagram 51. In cutting new sleeves, 
cut your pattern across from J to I, and insert a wedge 
to nothing at I, which will make sleeve more bent, as 
illustrated by dotted lines, K coming to M, and L to N 

Loose and superfluous material at top 
of Hindarm. Diagram 49. 

This, too, is necessary to a certain extent, in order 
to allow sufficient play in the sleeve for the arm coming 
forward. Ladies, however, do not require so much in 
this way as men, they prefer elegance to ease ; and in 



iSia. 



..P^gagjSLuE, - 





~"3^T 



w 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




order to avoid this foul material at back of the arm, it 
will be necessary to clear out the undersleeve as shown 
by dotted lines W, whilst a little may be taken off the top 
of the hindarm of undersleeve and stretched up. In 
all these defects the (juantity or extent of the alteration 
must be decided by the degree to which the defect 
appears. There are many other defects to which 
sleeves are liable, but those touched upon are perhaps 
the most important ones. 



Section Six. 

Dolmans and Cloaks. 

To the inexperienced Ladies 1 Cutter, Dolman Capes, 
and the like garments, are probably a greater source of 
anxiety than any other styles ; and yet, if the princi- 
ples on which they are cut are but once grasped, they 
are as easy to cut as the simplest garment worn. We 
rind young men can better grasp these by cutting one 
out, baisting it together, and trying it on a figure of 
the same breast measure as the pattern is cut for. We 
seldom cut them out by system, that is, by drawing- 
lines and angles, for they are generally worn as part of 
a garment, and as such must necessarily be made to 
harmonize with the parts it has to be worn with : hence 
we iu variably use the parts of the pattern they will be 
worn in connection with, such as the forepart, sidebody, 
and sleeve to draft them out by. This will be best 
understood by following the arrangement we will de- 
scribe. 

The body part of these may be cut exactly the same 
as the Ulster, with one exception, viz., the sideseam 
running into the scye point of shoulder, instead of 
about 2 inches below ; the scye may be made close fit- 
ting, and sleeves added in the usual way if so desired. 

The Body Part. Dia. 53, Plate 24. 

The more general plan of cutting the body part is 
illustrated by diagram 53, the dotted lines representing 
the ordinary Ulster as described in a preceding section. 
The scye is lower from C G and I, and the back carried 
to shoulder point. (The sleeve pitches at B and C 
should be carefully marked as a guide for the wing in 
making), but a reference to diagram 53 will make this 
perfectly plain, without further detailed instruction 
from us. The only further remark we need make is 
with reference to the shoulder. If the wing or cape is 
made to come over the shoulder as in the Russian 
Cloak, the shoulder of the under part may be consider- 
ably narrowed, say to 2 inches at P, but of course this 
must not be done with such garments as •■ire illustrated 




on figures :):; and 36, where the Dolman wing takes 
more the form of the sleeve. Sometimes in very thick 
materials, or for the sake of economy, the sidebody is 
not extended right through, being merely made about 
4 inches dee]) at the waist, the forepart being also 
arranged in harmony ; but our readers will readily 
understand that, though it is not indicated on the dia- 
gram. We will now proceed to deal with the various 
styles of Dolman, and begin with 

The Duchess Dolman, 

Diagram 54, Plate 24. Figure 33, Plate 25. 

This is a style which has taken well with the better 
class of society, the only objection to it being the diffi- 
culty in lifting the arms, but this is a defect apparent 
in many — we may say most — styles of Dolmans. In 
appearance it bears a certain resemblance to the 
Russian Circular Cloak, with this great difference, 
the wing is finished at a level with the waist, instead of 
extending right through to the shoulder ; but this will 
be best understood by a reference to figure 33, which, 
brings out the special features very clearly, so we will 
turn our attention to the cutting, and as we have fully 
described the body part, we will proceed with 

The Wing. Diagram 54. Plate 24. 

First take the sidebody and sleeve, and lay them 
down as shown by the dotted lines of diagram 54, the 
hindarm of sleeve and top of sidebody joining as at A. 
then notice there is at least ?> inches space at L, and 
mark round from C to B, B being as far from A ae A 
is from B in diagram 53. Now continue from B to I, 
and J, by the back of the sidebody, though it is 
just as well to fill it in at I h inch, so avoiding the 
decided hollow at I ; continue across to K as far as 
taste may dictate, now put the finger on the sleeve at 
C, and swing round the sleeve till it is level with the 
waist, making C the pivot, and marking C to F by the 
forearm of sleeve, and connecting F to K as shown. 
In order to avoid getting the seam just on the top, 
some cutters add on about 2 inches from C to D, and 
take the same amount off the undersleeve which is out- 
lined by E G H F, and is cut by the scye of diagram 
53 from E to (i, and the remainder by taste. 

The Russian Circular Cloak. 
Diagram 55, Plate 26. Figure 34, Plate 25. 

The popularity of these garments during the past 
few years has raised them to a position of importance 
in Ladies' Garments, and as they combine both warmth 
ami comfort, it is more than likely they will continue 




popular for .some time to come, hence we regard them as 
one of the most important of the various styles of Dol- 
mans we shall deal with. They embody almost all the 
principles of cutting for all the various styles, but this 
will be easily understood as we proceed. The body part 
would he cut as diagram 53, as we have previously 
noted, so that all that is necessary is to describe the 
wing or outer forepart. 

Lay the cut-out forepart and sidebody in the position 
shown on diagram 55 — touching each other at bottom 
L, and with a space of not less than 3 inches at A ; 
and in laying them together in this way, notice that 
the balance is not disturbed, or, in other words, see 
that the sidebody is not passed up or down. Now take 
the sleeve. Having arranged the sleeve head in the 
style it is desired the sleeve head of wing shall be, that 
is, plain or puffei, lay it with the forearm overlapping 
the forearm pitch about 1 inch as at K, and then bring 
the hindarm to the back pitch W, and the outline 
of wing may then he drawn, starting from B to V to 
F and 1) by the forepart, from 1) to W by the sleeve, 
but adding on whatever amount was lost to the back at 
the hindarm pitch, in continuing it up to the shoulder 
seam ; now come down from W to G, and it will be 
found preferable to fill up the hollow above G a trifle, 
say a \ inch ; then continue on to E and across the 
bottom from L to C. The forepart may be completed 
from C to B to taste, the dotted outline representing 
the meeting edge to edge line, cutting it away more or 
less from the front of forepart as fancy or customer's 
wishes may dictate, but it is well to remember there is 
a tendency for them to appear more cut away than they 
really are, owing to the movements of the arms. 

Hints on Making Russian Cloaks. 

The one great feature in these garments is to get 
them to fit nicely over the shoulders, with sufficient 
room, and yet to tit snug in at the hollow of waist. 
To secure this, the ha'anee must he carefully preserved, 
sewing point W to the hindarm pitch of back, and care- 
fully distributing any fulness there may be from W to 
I> in the same way as for a sleeve : the shoulder and 
gorge F, V, B are sewn to the back and collar at the 
same time as the forepart, and in like manner the side- 
seam from |W to E is sewn to the back with the 
sidebody. Tabs should be placed about 14 or 15 
inches up from C, by which to secure the wing to the 
forepart, or otherwise, in boisterous weather, these have 
a very " fly-away " tendency. As we have previously 
stilted, the under or body part is usually the same as 
an Ulster with sleeves, or with the armholes cut away 
to the waist, but sometimes a strip is cut off the fore- 
part, as from V to M, diagram .">.">, and this is secured 



ijys. 



-&ZL 



to the wing, an opening being left about I for the 
hands to come through, but this is only one of 

The Variations of Style 

That may be introduced. The dot and dash line G H I 
shows another style which has found much favour, 
especially with ladies who objected to the weight of 
the Russian Cloak, whilst it also has a fanciful appear- 
ance which readily lends itself to various styles of 
ornamentation. Diagram 56 is really only another 
adaptation of the same gamient or part of garment, 
and, as will be seen, it illustrates the old Sling Dolman 
Cape so very popular a few seasons ago. As far as the 
principles of cut are concerned, they are identical with 
what we have described for diagram 55 ; the main 
point of difference lies in their being cut short, termi- 
nating about 2 or 3 inches below the natural waist, 
and then an extra 2 or 3 inches are left to turn up 
round the bottom, to meet the sling outlined by V, B, 
C, E, and which may be varied to taste. The wing 
of the 

Ladies' Inverness, 

Diagram 56, Plate 26 ; Figure 35, Plate 25, 

Is identical with this, but minus the sling, though it is 
often customary to cut them longer in front : but of 
course this is a matter easily adjusted to the customer's 
views. If a looser style of Cape is desired, open the 
forepart and sidebody at J, making A, as it were, a 
pivot : or, better still, the top of sidebody W, when 
more drapery will fall at the side : but these are 
merely side issues, which will soon suggest themselves 
to the cutter when once the principles of cut, as here 
laid down, are mastered. We will just mention one 
more : High puffed sleeve heads give more round 
between W and D, and more width at W in just the 
same way the alteration would be made for sleeves. 
These hints will, we trust, prove sufficient for the cut- 
ter to produce any style of Dolman Cape, so we will 
proceed to deal with 

The Princess Dolman Sleeve. 
Diagram 57, Plate 26 ; Figure 36, Plate 25. 

The same principle is applied here, only the forepart 
is omitted. Take the sidebody and sleeve and lay 
them together as shown at W and E with a space at E 
of not less than 3 inches, making this more when more 
freedom for the movements of the arms is desired ; 
follow the sleeve head from D to W, adding on at W 
what was lost to the back as previously described for 
diagram 55 ; continue down from W to F and (i, by 
the sidebody, filling it up \ an inch at F. Now put 
the finger. od the forearm pitch D, and swing the sleeve 



-=- 



round as per dot and dash line, to a level of the waist, 
and continue the run of sleeve head from I) to V ; the 
width of sleeve hand is a matter of taste, and the run 
of the underside sleeve from D to E is arranged to 
agree with the scye of forepart and the bottom from A 
to C cut as much short as the topside is cut too long. 
If it is desired to carry the forearm seam out of sight 
at D, see instruction for diagram 54. These have a 
very stylish appearance when in the garment, but the 
one great drawback is the inability to raise the arm, 
the sleeve being secured to the sideseam. 

A Sleeve Wing. Diagram 58. 

The variety of ways in which this combination of 
parts can be applied is unlimited ; diagram 58 illus- 
trates the sleeve and sidebody only, grown together ; 
and the same instructions we have given for the other 
diagrams will apply to this. Put the sidebody to the 
hindarm pitch of sleeve ; arrange the amount of 
drapery between hindarm of sleeve and front of side- 
body, usually about 3 inches : adjust the length to 
customer's ideas, and the cutting is complete. In 
making, it is sewn in with the sideseam and sleeve 
head from F I) to W. 

Diagram 59 

Illustrates still another style, this has the back and 
sleeve grown together, and has a very stylish appear- 
ance when on. To cut this, put the hind arm of sleeve 
to the hindarm pitch, arrange the space from B to C 
by about 3 inches more than the width of the sidebody ; 
more or less in accordance with the amount of drapery 
desired. In making, this is sewn in with the sleeve 
head, the shoulder seams and back neck ; the back 
seam being preferably sewn separate, as it would give 
it a freer appearance. 

Doubtless there are many other styles of Dolman 
sleeves, capes and wings, but the cutter who has the 
least inventive genius will readily be able to produce 
any design he sees, if he once grasps and puts into 
practice the principles we have laid down, one of the 
most important of which is, that what is lost at one 
part is made up on another by a sort of give and take 
arrangement, whilst another important feature is to 
retain the balance. 

Dolmans and Cloaks are so very closely allied, that 
it is sometimes difficult to tell to which style a particu- 
lar garment may belong ; so we deal with them both 
in this section, and now proceed to treat of 

Cloaks. 



One of the most popular garments of this season will 
the Yoked Cape, illustrated on Diagrams 60 and 61, 




Plate 21. Figure : J >7, Plate 2*. In cutting these, it is 
far more a question of the infusion of style and ease 
than fit, consequently a reliable Block Pattern forms 
the best hasis of operation. 

Diagram 60 

Shows how the yoke is cut : the back and forepart are 
placed with the shoulder seams together, and when in 
that position mark those parts outlined by W, 0, 1, 2, 
V, comprising the back, gorge, and front : and now 
comes the part where all the taste may be displaye \ 
for certainly the outline of the bottom part and the 
length allows ample scope for the designer's skill. 
Some make them very pointed and to reach down to 
the waist, as illustrated on figure 37 : others keep them 
short and round both back and front, whilst others 
give extra length to the front, consequently we cannot 
lay down any definite rule in this direction. In the 
style illustrated on diagram 60, the yoke is made point- 
ed back and front, starting at the depth of scye on the 
back at W to shoulder point D of back, and then from 
the corresponding point of front shoulder to the depth 
of scye line of forepart V. These are generally cut 
without a shoulder seam, but if any improvement 
can be made in the run of the pattern or for any other 
purpose, we see no reason why a shoulder seam should 
not be introduced. These yokes are very frequently 
made either of velvet or else ornamented very richly 
with braid, and there can be no doubt they make a 
very stylish feature in these garments, which combine a 
taking style with all the comforts of the more " grand- 
motherly " sort. 

The Bodypart, Diagram 61, 

Is merely a straight piece of material with the top part 
rounded so as to adjust it to the yokes. The width 
from W to V depends to a large extent on the substance 
of the material : to infuse the same appearance of ful- 
ness in a garment made of thin material, these must 
be cut much wider than would be necessary for a cloth 
for which we should advise W to V to be about 36 to 
40 inches. The same width is generally retained to 
the bottom, though in the event of a very thick ma- 
terial being used, it would be as well to slope both back 
and front a little, in which case the distance from W 
to V may be considerably reduced. 

The adjustment of length, diagram 61, is often a 
puzzling detail in these garments, but it is really a very 
simple matter. Draw line W V, and place the back on 
this line with the depth of scye line resting on it ; then 
take the forepart and repeat the same operation. Now 
draw a line from the two shoulder points D and F, and 
at * (which is midway between D and F) make the top 



-<**i^g^^> r 



of the round ; but if a large amount of puff is desired 
to the shoulder, extra round must be added above * ; 
the full length may then be adjusted by measuring 
down from top of back in the usual way allowing for 
seams where consumed. It will, of course, be under- 
stood our diagram does not extend to the full length. 

Most of our readers will doubtless understand the 
details of making these garments— that the bodypart is 
fulled on to the yoke all the way round, the back 
gathered in very much at the waist and tied in with a 
waist-band usually made of ribbon, and that the yokes 
are usually the only part lined, except where the front 
edge is faced with silk. 

The Circular Cloak. 

Figure 38. Plate 28, 

Now claims our attention. It is a garment largely 
used by nurses, elderly ladies and others, and from the 
demand for patterns of this kind coming at regular 
intervals, we are disposed to regard it as a garment that 
is never out of fashion ; and it will doubtless be in the 
recollection of many of our readers, that some four or 
five years ago they were one of the most popular of 
ladies' overgarments, indeed, the Russian Circular 
Cloak is only an adaptation of this garment. There 
are many degrees of fulness to which these may be cut, 
but the style we illustrate on our diagram is as close as 
we should ever advise, and from this it will be easy to 
deviate in the matter of extra room. 

Diagram 62. Plate 27, 

Shows how the back is cut. Take the block pattern of 
the back and sidebody of an Ulster, letting them just 
touch at the top of sideseam K, and the bottom L. 
The back seam and neck may be drawn exactly the 
same as the back, but in order to get the seam to come 
on the top of the shoulder, it will be advisable to come 
up from A to D about 1 inch ; C to E is from 2 to 3 
inches, and draw sideseam by W D E F ; mark off 
the length to agree with the customer's measures, and 
arrange the finish of the pleats in accordance with the 
^ady's own ideas, and the back is complete. 

The Forepart. Diagram 63, Plate 27, 



Is produced on similar lines : what was added to the 
back from A to I) is taken off from B to F, whilst 
another 1 inch is added to the sideseam at H, thus 
making an excess of 3 to 4- inches beyond the Ulster 
size in the body, that being the minimum amount 
necessary in a garment to be worn over the arms ; the 
difference between the measure of chest and over arms 
and chest being from to H inches ; the sideseam may 



then be drawn from Y P, G to F. If it is desired to 
fasten down the fronts with holes and buttons, the 
usual button stand must be left on, but when, as is 
often the case, these garments are lined with fur, they 
are made to hook and eye. Sleevelets are often placed 
on the foreparts in something of the style shown, the 
seam from I to J being generally hidden by some mode 
of ornamentation. If fur lining is required for this, a 
pattern of the garment is sent to the furriers, who will 
send you the fur all made up to size, just ready for the 
outside, so that the making of a srarment of this class 
is a very simple matter. The same principle employed 
here will also produce a very pretty shoulder cape, if 
cut off about 14 or 15 inches from neck, but this will 
doubtless suggest itself. 

"We will now proceed with illustrations of Summer 
Dolmans, one or two styles of which seem to always re- 
tain their popularity — the Florence and the Princess. 
We will deal first with 

The Florence Dolman, 
Fig. 40, Plate 28 ; Dia. 64, Plate 29. 

This illustrates the body part of a Summer Dolman 
cut from a Jacket pattern, it being much easier to cut 
all kinds of Dolmans from a model pattern than to 
work them out by system. It will be noticed the back 
has been reduced from D to "W, so making one con- 
tinuous run from waist to shoulder. The scye of the 
forepart has been lowered from F to G, and the bottom 
lengthened and made pointed ; but of course this is a 
matter of taste, though this is the more general way. 
The sidebodies are cut short, as illustrated on diagram, 
care being taken to put a corresponding mark on back 
and sidebody in order to retain the balance. The side- 
bodies, however, are often omitted altogether, when the 
forepart would be cut as per dot and dash line, from N" 
to M and F. This answers well for such styles as the 
Florence, but for the Princess and similar garments it 
is better cut as per the solid outline. These garments 
are generally arranged to meet edge and edge in the 
front. The diagram shows a blind added for hooks 
and eyes, but of course this can be varied if desired by 
adding on a button-stand in the ordinary way beyond 
the breast line. 

The Florence Wing. Diagram 65. 



This is got on very similar lines to what we have 
previously described. Take the sidebody and sleeves 
and lay them together at the hind arm pitch, the hind- 
arm of sleeve going to the hindann pitch on sidebody. 
Arrange the space at Q in accordance with the desired 
amount of ease ; a good medium ouantity is about 
3 or 4 inches, then mark round from F to W, adding r 



on at W what the back lias been narrowed (see W D, 
diagram 53). Then continue from W to bottom of 
sidebody, filling in the hollow of waist about h an inch ; 
now put the finger on F, and swing the sleeve forward, 
as per dot and dash line, till the cuff rests on a level 
of the waist at V, and mark round from F to Y, hol- 
lowing it a trifle more as shown ; the outline of the 
bottom part is quite a matter of taste, and may be 
rounded or pointed, or arranged in any way to taste. 
If the body part has been cut without sidebodies, the 
solid line from F S to V outlines the under sleeve, it 
being cut straight down from F. If cut with sidebodies, 
the dash outline illustrates the style it is cut, the bot- 
tom being made to agree with the bottom of scye. 

Hints on Making. 

The shoulder seams are sewn together : the hindarm 
pitch of wing at W is put to the hindarm pitch of back ; 
the forearm pitch is also arranged to harmonise the 
wing with the forepart : the under sleeve at F M is 
sewn to F M of the forepart, and the top and under 
sleeves are sewn together from F to V. A waist-band 
is sewn to the back at the centre and sideseams to keep 
it close to the figure, and the remainder of the garment 
is completed to taste. We will now proceed to treat of 
a few styles of ladies' Capes, and take first the 

Three-quarter Circle Cape. 

Dia, 66. Fig. 41. Plate 30. 

This is one of the easiest of Capes to cut, all that is 
necessary being to take the back and forepart, place 
the shoulder seams together as per dotted lines I) F, 
and then mark round the back gorge and front. The 
only point needing special mention is the length ; from 
"W to 15 is always to measure, and then a line is drawn 
at right angles to the back seam across to F ; then 
measure from 3 to 15, and make F to 15^ the same 
quantity ; now measure from W to 15, and make I) to 
V this quantity plus f of an inch, and by these points 
arrange the sweep of bottom. The special feature of 
this Cape is the fulness which falls all round ; it is 
often made all in one piece, the pattern being arranged 
to run with the back seam or where the back seam 
would be. 

Half Circle Cape. 

Diagram 67. Figure 42. Plate 30. 

This is a much closer fitting Cape, and is also cut 
from a pattern of back and forepart. Arrange these 
with the shoulder point D touching, and the centre of 
front running at right angles to the back : having got 
this, pass the front forward 1 inch and drop it down i 



an inch, and in this way provide for the Y at D ; the 
outline of the Cape is then got by the patterns in this 
position, the length being adjusted in the same way 
as described for the Three-quarter Circle Cape. This 
is a fairly full style of Cape, but not nearly as full as 
the previous one. It is often arranged with a seam 
over the shoulders, and, as a guide to locate this seam, 
come down from to A one-third of the breast, and 
mark across from A to B one-third of the breast : take 
out 2 or 3 inches from B to C, and arrange the seams 
as illustrated by the dotted lines from B and C to D. 
One great advantage of having this seam is, that the 
material runs the right way at both back and front. 

Close-fitting Cape. 
Diagram 68. Fig. 43. Plate 30. 

Take the back, forepart, and sleeve, and place them 
as illustrated on diagram 57, the sleeve on the forepart 
pitch of sleeve and overlapping 1 inch ; the back is 
then placed with the back pitch at the hindarm, the 
space at C being regulated more or less (say 7 or 8 inches) 
as it is desired close or full. The length is regu- 
lated as for the others, making the front f of an inch 
more than the back. If the sleeve head is desired 
puffed, it must be arranged on the sleeve head before 
applying it to the forepart and back to cut the Cape 
by. This is a very stylish Cape, and one that is always 
popular for fairly heavy materials, fur, &c. There are 
one or two fancy styles of Capes which are very popular 
now, and in order to keep this work up to date, we will 
deal with 

Yoked Capes Dia. 69. Figs. 44, 45, 46. 

Our illustrations portray the square and pointed 
yokes, with pleats arranged below in either case. The 
back view illustrates the arrangement of the pointed 
yoke, whilst for the one with the square front yoke the 
back would be also square. 

The System, Diagram 69, Plate 31, 

Is practically the same as we have just briefly described 
for the close-fitting Cape. Take the forepart and lay it 
down with the sleeve overlapping about 1 inch as at M, 
and arranged with the cuff X laying in its natural 
position. Now mark round the forepart from W V R 
Q P and S, and then continue the mark as per solid 
line from S to H by the sleeve head. Now put the 
back with that part where the sleeve is intended to be 
pitched to the hindarm of the sleeve at L, arranging 
the space H N by judgment, making it wider by swing- 
ing the back round by the pivot L if it is required 
full round the bottom, and vice versa if it is desired 
tight-fitting ; then continue from L to C B A E F and_ 



- fti&Z&ti& : - 



I, marking off the length from A to I to the measure 
taken phis seams, and arranging the relative length of 
front, either square as shown on figures or pointed, or 
in any other way the customer may desire. So far we 
have only treated of a plain Cape without yoke or 
pleats, we will now describe 

How to arrange the Yokes. 

These are really nothing more than the top of the 
back and forepart cut off and a seam introduced, but a 
reference to diagram (>i) will make this perfectly plain. 
The shaded part of back as outlined by A B C D E is 
the square yoke ; it is generally made slightly pointed 
downwards, both back and front ; but of course that is 
quite a matter of taste : we have seen some very fan- 
tastic designs in the outline of these yokes. The lower 
part of the Cape with the square yoke is illustrated by 
W T S L D E I, or if pleats are required as per illus- 
trations, then add on from E to J and I to K of back, 
and T to U and W to X, a quantity in accordance 
with the number and style of pleats desired, but we will 
deal with these presently. The pointed yokes are cut 
as per dot and dash line from C to F and P to V, in 
which case part of the shoulder is cut with the lower 
part, when of course two seams must be allowed of 
overlap. In this way infinite variety may be intro- 
duced, both outline, length, and material used playing 
a very important part, and as there is so much 
scope in this direction, it is beyond the range of 
this work to attempt a description of them all. The 
more general length for the pointed yoke is to reach 
to the waist, whilst the square style generally runs 
about <; or 7 inches deep behind, with the front ar- 
ranged in accordance. 

Provision for the Pleats 

Is made in the manner above described, the amount 
varying according to the material : for an ordinary 
cloth, about ?> inches will be found sufficient for each 
pleat, so that if three pleats are desired the amount to 
be allowed from T to TJ and W to X would be 9 inches. 
A slit is generally arranged at the back pleat of the 
front, so that the arms may be brought forward w ith- 
out lifting the lower part of the Cape. With the 
pointed yoke, it is not so easy to adjust the pleats, still 
it becomes fairly easy if the principle is once mastered ; 
the best way is to pleat up the material in the style 
desired, and then lay down the pattern and cut it out 
with the pleats already in the cloth. This simplifies 
the matter very considerably, and will always ensure 
the pleats being arranged satisfactorily. We will now 
give a few 



Hints on Making 

These more fancy styles. The yokes are generally in- 
terlined with canvas and lined with silk, a strip of silk 
forming the front facing, except when they are lined 
right through with silk, but this is only occasionally. 
A waist-band is nearly always put to hold it in at the 
back and sides, the only exception being when they are 
made very full round the bottom, and not intended to 
define the waist at all ; but tins is a style we have not 
yet treated of, as they are only occasionally seen in 
wear. The edges are more generally turned in and 
stitched, the fronts fastening with hooks and eyes ; but 
there is no reason Avhy, if so desired, they should not 
be made to fasten with holes and buttons. In such a 
case the inch of button-stand would require adding all 
down the front. Sometimes the front yoke is cut to 
extend to the waist in front, though it looks the same 
as the square yoke, the pleats being arranged on the 
top, this being done with the view of keeping the 
shoulders firm and close to the figure, as when the 
yoke extends to the waist it can be fastened to the 
figure by the aid of the waist-band. 

Hoods. 

Dias. 70 to 74. Plate 32. Fig. 47 and 48. 

Now that these adjuncts to overgarments are so very 
popular for both ladies and gentlemen, nothing could 
form a more appropriate conclusion to this section, 
especially as so few people really understand how to cut 
and make them, these Ave are now enabled to place 
before our readers embrace the leading styles which are 
now being worn. Full size patterns of these can be 
obtained at our Office, as well as of any other style our 
customers may require, provided sufficient instructions, 
or better still, an illustration is sent with the order. 
Anyone, however, possessed of ordinary intelligence, 
can reproduce those illustrated by the use of an inch 
tape, square, &c. 

Diagram 70. Figure 47, 

Is decidedly the most popular type, and is pretty gene- 
rally known under the name of the jelly-bag hood. It 
falls open as it were, and shows the lining to advantage, 
which is a feature worthy of notice when a stylish effect 
is desired, and as the materials used for lining vary so 
much, embracing silk, satins, plush, velvet, &c, there 
is no lack of material by which, in this way, to relieve 
and brighten a garment which would otherwise look 
very heavy and dull. Hoods are really an arrangement 
to cover the head, and this type is one of the most suit- 
able for this purpose, being one of the roomy class 
The diagram will readily explain how it may be 



.^su. 





'•^asSse^ 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




duced. The back is cut on the crease or double edge 
of the cloth, and the bottom part, as from 20 to 12, is 
sewn together, the cut at neck from f to 4| is sewn up, 
either to a band with holes to fasten to buttons placed 
round the neck, or it may be sewn in with the collar 
seam ; the former plan is the oue more generally 
adopted, as it allows for the hood being detached if 
desired. 

The Round Hood, diagram 71, figure 48, 

Is a type of hood not nearly so popular as it was 
formerly, when it formed part of the ladies' Circular 
Cloak. It is cut on the crease down the back as the 
former one, and a cord is put in to a hem run all round 
the outside and drawn in, forming a series of gathers 
which gives it a rather graceful appearance. It is well 
to remark that this style should never be cut smaller 
than our diagram (except for a child) and in many 
cases a larger one would be decidedly preferable. The 
neck of this may be sewn in the same way as that 
described for the last, and is, in fact a method applicable 
to them all. 

The Cape Hood, diagram 72, 

Is very stylish looking, and when not in use, lies quite 
flat across the back from shoulder to shoulder, being 
double at that part. As will be seen, it is produced by 
the back and foreoart being placed with their shoulder 
points touching, and a V taken out at neck, equal to £ 
of the breast, the bottom part is at D, being rounded so 
as to give it a circular appearance at the bottom. It 
should be cut with the back on the double, and 
points I) 1) and 3, 12t> sewn together, and the 
bottom as at E sewn to the corresponding part of 
the other half. 

Fancy Pointed Hood, diagram 73, 

Is quite a distinct style from any of the foregoing, and 
is arranged more with the idea of producing effect than 
for use, still it can be turned to practical use if desired. 
This style is a very favourite one with ladies, and 
allows full scope for the exhibition of any fancy lining- 
desired. It lies quite flat with two points at bottom, 
and a pointed revers which can be faced with any con- 
trasting material. The back is cut on the double ; 
B B is sewn together, and those parts as from 14, 
A C C to 10 are joined to the corresponding parts on 
the other side. Point 10, just above C, then lies on 
the top of 10 on the back. There is a point at 14, 
another just above it by the crease edge, between C C 
and the pointed revers 10, 12£ turning back and form- 
a most effective hood. 




Diagram 74 

Is another of the same type, having only one point at 
bottom, and a revers sewn on to a hollow edge as 3, '.*, 
( J^, going off to point, and overlapping each other at 
bottom. This forms a very pretty hood, and is not 
quite so complicated as the last one. 



Section Seven. 

Ladies' Trousers, Breeches and Gaiters. 

Diagrams 75 to 79. Plates 33 and 34. 

We now come to what may be looked upon as the 
more unusual garments, and which perhaps causes the 
young cutter more worry and nervousness than any 
other garments, this may very easily be avoided. 
The first operation is of course measuring, and on this 
we will give a few hints. First measure from the waist 
to the full length of side desired, in the usual way as 
for gents ; to get the length of leg there are three very 
good ways ; the one most generally practised is to ask 
the lady to sit down on a chair, and then measure the 
distance from waist to the chair ; this gives the length 
of the body, and if this be deducted from the side, the 
accurate length of leg will be the result. Another way 
is to measure from waist to hip bone, and place the 
fork on a level of 3 inches below this. The third 
method of getting the leg measure is to measure from 
centre seam of back on to the bone of wrist, as for a 
sleeve, and a quantity will thus be obtained which 
coincides wonderfully well with the length of leg. 
Though, of course, it is highly advisable to get the 
length of leg correct, yet it is always preferable to get 
it short rather than long, as the former causes little 
inconveniences owing to the position occupied when in 
the saddle, being so different to gents who ride astride, 
and consequently require their riding breeches to come 
close up to the fork, with plenty of length from fork to 
knee. For the same reason, gents require a far more 
open style of cut than ladies. The remaining measures 
of waist, seat, size of knee, and bottom, are easily taken 
as far as trousers arc concerned ; but with breeches, it 
is quite different. In those firms that make these 
garments a speciality, they ask the lady to take a seat, 
and lift the skirt over her knees and take the tight 
knee, small, and calf in the ordinary way. It will be 
for our readers to decide whether they will follow this 
plan, or ask the lady to forward them herself. For our 
own part we can see no reason why any objection 
should be raised, provided the operation is done in a 
business-like way. In all these things it is not so 



much what you do, as how you do it. A judicious 
tact will soon enable the cutter to get over these 
somewhat delicate operations with ease, and over- 
come that nervousness which betrays a want of expe- 
rience. We will not dwell further on these preliminary 
remarks, but proceed to deal with 

The Trousers. Plate 33. 

At one time it did not matter much how these were 
cut, so long as they were made big enough, but now 
that the trains are made so very close fitting, it will 
readily be seen how great is the necessity for their 
fitting perfectly. Trousers are not so much worn as 
they were at one time, breeches and leggings, or 
breeches and top boots being largely patronised by the 
leaders of society ; but inasmuch as the customers our 
clients are likely to have to cater for, not being com- 
posed entirely of that class, we think it preferable to 
give diagrams of both trousers and breeches. The 
materials from which these are mostly made are 
stockinette and elastic cloths. 

One of the leading West End firms makes a speciality 
of dressed deer skin, which allows of the desired form 
being imparted with the utmost nicety. This firm 
generally make garments of this class to fasten quite 
close below the knee, and supply leggings ; or top 
boots are worn with them. We have heard many 
rumours that ladies are patronising the knickerbocker 
breeches with the Devon knee bands, as now worn by 
gentlemen ; the material selected for these being of the 
most masculine patterns. These, however, have not 
yet become very general. 

The System Dias. 75 and 76. Plate 33. 

It is not necessary for us to point out the positions 
of top, leg, or bottoms, as our readers know these are 
found in the usual way, though it may be as well to 
mention that the legs are cut 1 inch longer than the 
measure for fulling on over the knee. E H I is the 
centre line of the legs ; from E to B, and E to D are 
both one third of the seat, C is midway between E and 
D ; to F may be made 1^ inches, to CI the half 
waist and 3 inches, the waist being reduced to size by 
means of V's, as illustrated. The widths of the legs 
are equally divided on either side of H I, the usual 
widths for trousers being about 16 knee, 15 bottom. 
In drafting the undersides, come up from C to J, 
1 inch more than from C to E, and square the scat 
seam from J by letting the other arm of the square 
rest on B ; make up the size of the seat at the side, by 
allowing 2 or 3 inches for seams and ease, continuing 
the sideseam to the top pretty straight, and reducing 
it to the necessary size by means of V's. 



Hints on Making. 

It is of the utmost importance that the pcsition the 
lady occupies when in the saddle should be borne in 
mind, as that is the only position in which they should 
be worn, hence, it will be necessary to manipulate the 
sides differently. 

The top sides should be fulled on at the knee, quite 
1 inch for the leg that goes over the pommel (usually 
the right leg), and the underside fulled on a like 
amount at the seat. All those made from cloth have a 
considerable portion of the seat and legs lined with 
chamois, to prevent any possibility of chafing ; they 
are generally finished with fly fronts, the fly extending 
to the leg seam ; eyelets are placed at the back, so 
that they may be adjusted to the exact size of waist ; 
others are made with flys at the sides, but this is by far 
the older plan. 

The V's taken out at the waist must all be neatly 
finished either by covering with galoon or some other 
similar method. Waist bands are never put to the 
trousers, the whole aim being to keep everything as 
thin as possible. The waist band lining is invariably 
silk, which make a nice finish to the top. 

Breeches. 

Diagrams 77 & 78. Plate 34. 

These are precisely the same as the trousers in the 
body part, but of course tight-fitting from knee down- 
wards, and in this respect they resemble gents panta- 
loons, for they are generally extended to within about 
2 inches of the ankle, or say ten inches below the knee ; 
the width is distributed equally on either side of cen- 
tre line for both top and underside, an average mea- 
sure of a lady's leg at these parts for a 24 waist, would 
be about 14 knee, 12^ small, 13^ calf, and 8| bottom, 
the small is generally about 2 inches below the . knee, 
and the calf 2h or 3 inches below the small ; these 
hints may enable our readers to cut from the most 
meagre measures, which we know by experience, is only 
too often all he can get for that garment. There are 
generally 4 or 5 buttons placed at the bottom of these 
of a flat kind, the buttons on the right side being put 
on the leg seam side, so as to prevent all unnecessary 
friction when in the saddle. This plan is also followed 
with 

The Gaiters, Diagram 79. 

These are cut in the same style as a coachman's, 
though some firms continue the tongue up to the top, 
instead of the method illustrated ; but this is merely 
a point in detail wherein different firms vary. 

Draw lines 16, and mark off the length to calf, 
ankle, bottoms, &c, and measure back from this line 



■■ .P^^g^j^ - 



half the size of the leg at the various, parts plus \ 
inch ; thus at calf, half of 13^ = 6| + \ inch fox- 
seams = 7 j. Arrange the run of the buttons to agree 
with the sideseam of breeches, and leave an inch for 
button stand on the one side, and come out from line 
0, 16, as much as the button stand is behind it ; thus 
to 1^ is 1\ inches, allowing 1 inch for button stand, 
would equal 2|. The diagram illustrates a very good 
size of bottom, and if the figures are taken to represent 
inches all over, this will produce a very good medium 
size pattern, starting in all cases from for the length 
ond from If) for the widths. 

Spats. 

The bottom part of the gaiter diagram illustrates 
how these garments may be cut, and as they are now 
largely used in the Winter, we have no doubt our rea- 
ders will have occasional calls for them ; they are made 
from to 10 inches long ; and to produce them, all 
our readers will have to do will be to take this diagram, 
and measure from the bottom upwards the length 
desired. The tongue for these is carried through to 
the top always. Sometimes the buttons are run in a 
curve towards the front, but this is a variation our rea- 
ders will readily be able to alter if their customers 
should so desire it. 



Section Eight. 

Ladies' Skirts. 

Under this heading we purpose giving illustrations 
of a variety of Riding Trains, two of which will be 
reduced models of West End garments, and the third 
will be given more to illustrate how these may be cut 
by system, for though we do not generally advise such 
a method of catting these garments, yet it is especially 
useful in cutting for children or any out of the way 
size. For general purposes 

The West End Train, Plate 35, 

Will meet the requirements of the ordinary run of cus- 
tomers better, it being a pattern that has been carefully 
tested and tried by a large number, and is now so 
improved as to leave little to be desired. It is largely 
used in the West End, as well as the most fashionable 
hunting districts. 

As will be seen, it consists of three pieces, viz., back 
( Diagram 80), side (Diagram «1), and front (Diagram 
82), which are put together exactly as they are placed 
on the diagram : the right side of top part being joined 




to the right side of under pait, as shown by EFG, 
the corresponding letters going together in each case. 
The diagram exactly represents the inside of a Train 
with the seam at E F fl ripped open. The vent is 
placed either at the side or front, according to taste, 
and a pocket is generally inserted in the facing as illus- 
trated. The under part and top part are lined over 
the seat and knee with Silesia, to take some of the wear 
caused by the friction with the saddle, the position of 
this being shown with the dot and dash line, and elastic 
is put on in a suitable position for each boot. That part 
of the underside as shown by I F J is fulled on to the 
opposite part of the fish on either side. The topside is 
also stretched up as shown by marks at L, but at all 
other parts it is put together plain ; the letters corre- 
sponding show where the various seams are to be sewn 
together. The bottom is finished with a broad hem, in 
which weights of lead are frequently inserted when the 
material is at all thin. The length is regulated by 
making the sides as at C D agree with the length from 
waist to ground when standing, trains being now much 
shorter than they were in the olden time (when trains 
merely consisted of so much cloth pleated into the band 
at waist). They are finished at waist both with and 
without waistbands : in the former case they are merely 
bound, and left so for the sake of thinness, but if a 
band is put on it is as well to have a point to put at 
the centre of front as at X, which is a very great assist- 
tance to the lady in adjusting its position. Whatever 
plan is adopted for finishing the waist at top, it should 
be carefully arranged to agree with the exact size of 
waist, and hooks should be put on by which to fasten it 
to tabs fixed at back and sides of the bodice part. Any 
slight variation in the size of waist may be arranged by 
reducing the size of cuts in under part at K and of 
sidepiece at N, but if there is more than 1 or l\ inches 
of difference in size of waist, it will be best to enlarge 
or reduce it throughout by adding to or taking from 
the parts all down, as at A B of underside and C J > of 
topsides : whilst all variations in the length must be 
made by adding to or taking from the bottom. 

In Cutting from the Cloth 

Great care must be used to have the face of material 
right side out, and we think we cannot better explain 
ourselves than to say, lay the pattern down as repre- 
sented in the diagram, i.e., presuming the cloth to be 
opened out with the wrong side uppermost. Place the 
pattern of the top part with the side at C D close up to 
left hand selvage, standing with the bottom of the 
cloth towards you. The under part is then taken out 
by laying it with A B close up to the right hand 
selvage, and then taking the sidepiece out from the 
most convenient part with D towards the right. 



% 



.24LL 




G 3^^«pS l 



TO CUTTING LADIES GARMENTS. 



These instructions apply to the ordinary style of riding 
with the right leg resting on the pommel of the saddle. 
There are a few ladies who ride with the left leg in that 
position, when these instructions must be reversed, but 
such cases are few and far between. 

A " Try-on " 

Should always be arranged, if possible, as the run of 
bottom is a special feature with those who make this 
branch a study, and this can only be successfully 
arranged by a " try-on," as it is always advisable to 
consult the ladies' wishes, while at the same time being 
prepared to advise her upon any point she may desire. 
The position of the elastics for foot can also be decided 
in this manner, which will be found more simple and 
successful than any elaborate calculation of leg length, 
&c. A dummy horse is kept for this purpose in all the 
leading ladies' tailoring establishments, but if the firm 
should not possess this desideratum, it may be safely 
left in the hands of the lady's maid and the intended 
wearer, who will adjust all these little details to a 
nicety. 

The Diagram 

Is drawn to the one-twelfth scale, and should produce 
a garment when made up to measure 2^ yards round 
the bottom for a 24 waist, Full size patterns of this 
may be obtained at our office, price Is. 6d., post free 
Is. 7d., which method may be preferred by many of our 
readers to drafting it out for themselves. 

The New Safety Train. 
Diagrams 83 and 84. Plate 36. 

Many accidents to ladies thrown from their horses, 
having been very much aggravated by their Habit 
Trains catching in the saddle, has induced some of the 
inventive minds to prepare a Train in such a style as 
would not offer the least resistance to the complete fall 
of the lady from her horse. We have recently had 
several of these through our hands, and the diagrams 
on Plate 36 is a reduced model of one of these, and 
which, if our readers will reproduce by the ordinary tape, 
will be suitable for an average lady of 24 waist and 40 
side length. We shall not go over the diagram point 
by point, as it would serve no purpose, especially as 
these are seldom cut by system, indeed, we believe we 
shall be right in saying that 91) cutters out of every 100 
engaged in the best ladies' trades cut their trains out in 
this way, though for those who prefer a system we give 
one on the next page, so that our remarks on this New 
Safety Train, will be more of a practical than a scien- 
tific nature. Variations in length should be made at 




the bottom, but if the side length should show a great 
increase, it would be well to lower the V for the knee, 
as at W D, so that the distance from 12 to K agrees 
with the measure taken on the customer. Variations 
in the size of waist alone may be made by enlarging or 
reducing the V's, whilst for ladies, larger or smaller, 
both in seat and waist, the variation should be made 
through from to 40, by merely adding to or deduct- 
ing from as the case may require. Care must, of 
course, be taken to get the pattern cut the right way, 
as previously described for the West End Train. 

The Special Features 

Of this train are, first, its being left open from I) to 56, 
there a large hole is cut as illustrated at W D of topside, 
and F V of underpart, so that the usual surplus mate- 
rial between the knee and the pommel is avoided, and 
in case of accident there is plenty of room for the Train 
to free itself from the saddle. A double strip of elas- 
tic about t) inches long is sewn on at A, and a button 
placed at 3 0, so that the elastic may come under the 
knee and secure the lady at that part ; and in order to 
avoid any possibility of the elastic becoming unfastened, 
a short loop of twisted cord is put at 8 close to the but- 
ton, which is put over the button after the elastic is 
fastened to it, so that if the elastic should work itself 
free of the button, it is still held by the loop : this loop 
is also useful to hold the skirt up when walking, when 
it is fastened to the button at 1 7 of undersides. Below 
the opening it will be noticed there are four elastic 
loops, which are fastened to the buttons on the under 
part ; neither of these are stayed with linen, as the 
object of having it open is to allow the weight of the 
body to break away these tabs or buttons from their 
place in case of the lady being thrown from her horse, 
and the train catches on the pommel. As some of our 
readers may desire a train without this safety arrange- 
ment, we have outlined at W and I) the amount to be 
filled in of the topside, and from ;);>h to V of the under- 
side, when it will be made up in the ordinary style, 
closed all round. 

A few hints on Making. 

The shaded parts of top and underside are lined with 
linen or silesia, the stays for the footstraps are covered 
with Italian cloth, and the opening is bound with Prus- 
sian binding or 'leather, a waist band is generally put 
round the top, and may either be of of Melton or Ita- 
lian cloth, the latter being often preferred on account 
of thinness. The cuts or V's are usually taped, and 
the opening for putting on or off is either made at the 
side, forming a continuation of the V at f>.\, :> and 4, 
or it may be arranged at front as at 12, 10^, in which 
latter case it is fastened together with hooks and ev 



-(a-^^^i^g. 




placed about 1 inch apart ; and in the former it is 
fastened together with holes and buttons and a fly. A 
pocket is usually inserted in the opening, the outline of 
which we have illustrated by the dot and dash lines. 
A broad hem, say 3 inches, is left round the bottom, 
and in cutting, an inlay is usually left down the side- 
seam. In cutting it from the cloth special care must 
be used not to cut it inside out, an error many begin- 
ners make. If the pattern is laid down as it is placed 
on the Plate, the face of the cloth should be uppermost. 

The quantity of material required will be 3 yards of 
5G inches wide material ; but if it should not run quite 
so wide, a wheel piece can easily be put on the topside 
at 56. 

Complicated as this garment looks at first sight, a 
closer examination will show it to be really of a very 
simple nature, and such as any tailor of ordinary expe-« 
rience might make easily, the principal feature being 
to locate the knee accurately, and avoid all surplus 
materia], whether at seat or lap. The length is gene- 
rally made to just cover or show the golosh of the boot 
of the stirrup foot. Various methods are adopted to 
hold the Habit and Train together, hooks and eyes, or 
tabs and buttons being the two most frequently employ- 
ed. We have placed buttons on the diagram, one 
at the side just below 1\ on line 2, and one just above 
17 on line 5|, which seam would come as nearly as 
possible down the centre of back, the centre of front 
being fixed midway between h\ and lo|, and should be 
marked by a little white cotton on the waistband to 
assist the wearer in adjusting it properly. 

These are the principal points to be observed in 
making this Train. We have previously dealt with try- 
ing them on, and many other hints of a general nature, 
and which our readers will doubtless remember ; should 
any point in the diagram not be quite clear, it is drawn 
to the one-twelfth scale, and may be found accordingly. 
We may also add that patterns of this style of train can 
be had from the Tailor and Cutter Office, special refe- 
rence being made when ordering to the New Safety 
Train. 

The Cutters' Practical Guide Riding Train 
by System. Diagram 85. Plate 37. 



It is generally acknowledged that the majority of 
cutters produce their Riding Trains from block pat- 
terns, and we are not going to dispute the efficacy of so 
doing, as we believe it is one of the best methods of 
producing the general run of Trains. But there are 
times in the experience of most cutters whose business 
lies to any extent in the ladies' trade, that orders have 
come for very out-of-the-way sizes. Most probably 
.this conies in the shape of the little girl who is just 

-(^jg^ ^j 



beginning her career as an equestrienne, and as her 
form is altogether different to that of the normal figure, 
for the cutter to use his ordinary block pattern would 
be found not only inappropriate, but almost certain to 
lead to failure. It is for such cases that a system based 
on what we believe to be sound principles is of especial 
use, and the one we now lay before our readers for the 
first time will, we feel sure, be equal to all such cases. 
Systems such as this one are only arrived at after much 
study and extended experiment ; indeed, this which we 
now lay before our readers, occupying but a page of 
this work, has taken years of study in its development ; 
and though we do not claim perfection for it, we have 
every confidence that it will produce a good-fitting 
Train, and be especially useful in those out of the 
way sizes above referred to, as well as forming a foun- 
dation for others to elaborate and perfect. 

The Measures 

Required are side, waist, seat, round sent and knee, 
with right leg raised as in the act of riding (this latter 
may be omitted, but is decidedly preferable) ; they 
would probably stand 40 side, 24 waist, 40 seat, G4 
seat and knee. The applicaaion of these measures is as 
follows : draw line ABC; A to C is the side length ; 
A to B one-fourth side, and square across to DLP; 
B to D is one-fourth seat, and D I corresponds with 
the fork quantity of trousers, viz., one-third BD; I J 
is the same as I) I : J to L is one-fourth side, which 
will be found about equal to one-third of the leg 
length : L P is half knee circumference ; thus the total 
distance from B to P is made up ; this may also be 
obtained by measuring off B to P half seat and knee 
circumference plus 1 inch, and point L found by 
measuring back from P half knee circumference. Come 
up from L to M from 1 to H inches, and draw line 
J M * ; make M a pivot, and sweep from R to P. We 
now turn to the upper part ; square line D E at right 
angles to D B, and mark from E to G one-fourth waist 
plus li ; hollow from E to F about 1^ inches, or an 
amount equal to one-sixth of the disproportion of waist 
in the reverse way as followed for corpulent trousers, 
taking the ideal as waist G inches less than seat ; take 
out 1 inch in a V at H, and terminate it about 4 inches 
down ; this is often used to form the opening. Square 
line F K at right angles to F J, and make F K one 
fourth waist plus ^ inch, and continue the run of waist 
across as shown, and connect K R as shown ; take out 
two fishes of about H inches each as shown, so that 
they will come just over the knee. Continue below P 
by coming down from L to \\ inches, and squaring 
at right angles to P ; shape the side by springing it 
out about 1 inch at C, and slightly round it as illus 
trated, and the topside is complete. 



!££,. 




The Underpart 

\ 

Is got by laying down the cut-out forepart, and sweep- 
ing from A to X, using G as a pivot, and making A to 
X 4 inches, and draw side of underside from X to C. 
Now make star a pivot, and sweep from K to S, and 
mark off 4 inches ; draw a line from X to S, and 
reduce to the size of the waist by means of V's as illus- 
trated, making TUVW about 1 inch above line S X. 
Come out from R to Y from 1 to 2 inches, and take 
out Y to correspond in quantity with the two fishes 
from the forepart, taking out the surplus length from 
M to Y in a V upwards, as illustrated by dotted line at 
M. Complete the outline of undersides by the top- 
sides, making it rather hollower at the bottom, as shown 
by the dotted lines. A fish may be taken out of top- 
sides, as illustrated by dot and dash line from I, if a 
very clean-fitting lap is desired. If more room is 
desired over the seat of undersides, increase the quantity 
from A to X and K to S, which will have the same 
effect as an increased seat angle would to trousers, the 
principle involved in this Train being very similar to 
those employed in trousers cutting generally. Care 
must be taken to locate the knee correctly, and, if 
found possible, it will be as well to take a measure from 
waist to knee when in the saddle, and then apply it 
" from I to M, which may increase or reduce the distance 
from M to I. The same hint we have previously given 
for the making of Trains will apply with equal force to 
this, so that it will be quite unnecessary for us to again 
repeat them here. 

Shaped Skirt Band. Diagram 86. Plate 38. 



Of all the odds and ends the ladies' tailor has to 
know how to produce, there is probably none of more 
general usefulness than the shaped skirt band, as it 
admits of such general application. Hence we give a 
simple system for producing such. The measures neces- 
sary are : the depth of band, the size of waist, and the 
size of seat, which for the present we will say are 7 
deep, 24 waist, 40 seat ; seat measure taken about 7 
inches below waist. 

Commence by drawing line 0, 7, 0, 12 at right 
angles ; from to 7 is 7 inches ; come out 1, and 
draw line from to 1 ; from to 12 is half waist, 
from which sweep up to 5^, using point as the pivot ; 
from 12 to 5^ is one-third of the difference between 
waist and seat, and draw top from 5 h to by a gradual 
hollow ; to get the run of the front come up from 5^ 
to 11, as much as from 12 to f>i, and then draw the 
front from 5^ to A at right angles to 11, making the 
length to agree with measure taken, and complete by 
adding on a button-stand wherever it is desired, in the 
manner illustrated at 1. 



These are sometimes used in making a foundation, 
by joining a piece of straight or slightly sloped material 
on at the bottom, as is illustrated on Diagram 87, from 
line 7 20 downwards, the back being pleated on. The 
advantage of this method is the thinness round the 
waist and hips, as by this means all V seams or fulness 
are avoided. It is a most useful pattern in many ways 
— such, for instance, as fashioning the drapery, illus- 
trated on figures on diagrams ; putting point 5^ to the 
front of skirt and A to 7 ; shaping the top by b\ 0, 
and continuing over the hips from to 20, when the 
extra length of side is pleated in to form the folds, as 
illustrated. This, however, is merely one of its uses. 
It may be used to cut the top edge of the flaps for 
jackets of the Newmarket type, and in the case of short 
skirts it may be used for them ; but we have no doubt 
our readers will soon find the uses to which it may be 
put, so we will pass on to deal with 

The Skirt System. Diagram 87. 

The measures necessary for this are : length of front, 
side and back, size of waist taken tightly, and size of 
hips taken rather easily, about 7 inches down from the 
waist. These would probably stand, 39^, 40, 41 ; 24, 
40, and are applied as follows : Draw line 40, 20 ; 
from to 20 is half seat ; from to 7 is 7 inches 
always, and from to 40 is the length of front, plus \ 
inch ; come in from to 1 1 inch, and drop it ^ inch, 
and draw a line from 1 through 7, which finds the 
centre crease edge of front ; of course it is not impera- 
tive that this should be on the crease, but when cub 
from Italian cloth it may be so with advantage ; make 
from ^ to 4 one-eighth of waist ; now come in from 20 
to 19 one inch, and draw line from 19 through 20 to 
find run of the side ; now if it is desired to get it 
smaller round the bottom edge, come in less from 19, 
but on no account reduce the size from 7 to 20, as that 
must be retained in order to provide room for the seat ; 
now reduce the top to one and a half inches less than 
half waist by means of V's, as illustrated ; though, in 
making, we prefer to arrange the two back ones by 
pleats, rather than by cutting the V's out ; as by that 
means any variation in the size of the hip is provided for. 
The front drapery illustrated on right hand figure on 
diagram 87, is arranged just the same as. this, the back 
V's being generally dispensed with, and the fulness put 
in to the band at side. If it is desirable to have a 
seam down the side of foundation ; the V at 9^ may 
be continued through to the bottom as illustrated by 
dot and dash line ; indeed, all the V's may be done in 
this way if seams are desired to introduce effect. AVe 
now come to the back foundation. 




Diagram 88. 

This is merely a piece of material 13 inches wide 
top and bottom, the back being cnt on the crease, this 
is drawn in to li inches a side at the top, and so re- 
duced to the size of the waist, but to counteract the 
hollowing tendency of this drawing in, a little round 
must be added to the top. 

As these garments are somewhat out of the ordinary 
run, we w r ill give a few extra instructions, so that the 
inexperienced may know how to proceed 

The materials mostly used for foundations are linen? 
Italian cloth, silk, &c. The best of these is linen, as 
it combines all the advantages of silk, while it weal's 
better and it is far less expensive. 

The foundation is seamed up with the seams to come 
outside, and a facing is put all round the bottom some 
5 or (> inches deep, so that the bottom is bound with 
this facing ; on the top of this a narrow kilt is put 
also about 4 or 5 inches deep ; this is done more with 
the view of keeping the skirt out round the bottom 
than for it to show, though as we write there is a 
decided tendency for them to be seen, and in some 
cases are put on the top of the drapery. An opening is 
left at the right sideseam for the pocket to go in, about 
5h inches long, the top about 5 inches from the waist : 
on the left side an opening is left quite 10 inches long 
to allow the wearer to put it on or off. This should be 
well stayed at the bottom, and a facing put on so as to 
hide its existence in wear. The waist-band is best of 
k section, that is, the top part is single and the bottom 
part double, and allows the foundation to be sewn to 
the one part and then the drapery to be slipped under 
the top one, and the whole firmly fastened together. 
Putting on the waist-band is a very important detail ; 
the front or front and sidepieces should take up 3 inches 
less than the entire waist measure, and the back 
gathered or pleated in to 1^ inches aside ; that is, the 
foundation of back measuring 26 inches right across, is 
drawn in to 3 inches. In arranging the V's of the 
foundation at the side, we always prefer pleating them 
over and not cutting them out, as by that means they 
adjust themselves to the shape of the figure at the hips 
automatically. In dealing with very stout ladies it will 
be found a very good plan to take out a horizontal V 
from the bottom of the second V forward, in the same 
way as tailors usually treat big men's vests ; by this 
means a receptacle is formed for the prominence, and 
the skirt is kept well in at the bottom — a result always 
aimed at, though of course care must be taken not to 
overdo this feature, as it is certainly preferable to have 
a little excess of drapery, than to outline the stomach 
too closely. We will now pass on to that most impor- 
tant phase of ladies' skirt making, 



Drapery. Plate 39. 

To drape a skirt well is undoubtedly a work of art ; 
and inasmuch as each figure requires certain adaptations 
to make it the most suitable, it will at once be under- 
stood that any rules we may lay down are to be applied 
in a general sense, leaving the special application to 
the figure to the draper's judgment. 

The material has a considerable effect on the drapery ; 
heavy, thick material needs far less to form a fold than 
thin. The warp or lengthways of the material should 
always run down the figure, and if not wide enough to 
produce the desired effect, join on some on either side ; 
always avoid a seam down the centre of front. 

Drapery consists of an artistic arrangement of folds 
and hangings, and there can be no doubt that the best 
means o! becoming proficient in this art is by experi- 
ment. The foundation skirt may be likened to the 
walls of a house, the drapery to the paper and pictures 
and other ornamentation hung upon them. With the 
view of illustrating the principal methods of draping 
we have prepared a series of figures. 

Figure 49, Plate 39. 

Illustrates a deep kilt. The artistic effect of this adds 
height to the figure, and is generally a favourite style, 
either as illustrated or in a modified form. It is pro- 
duced at the sacrifice of width, thus: suppose your 
foundation skirt was 40 long and 2± yards round, your 
material would then be cut off in lengths of say 42 to 
44, the extra 2 inches allowed for hem at bottom, the 
longer lengths allowing for the extra length of back ; 
these would then be seamed up till it was from 4^ to 6| 
yards round. The smallest quantity a kilt can be 
arranged from to look at all passable is double quantity, 
whilst for thin materials treble quantity will be needed. 
The seams should always be hidden under the folds, 
which should also be nicely graded in at the waist. If 
the kilt is very deep it will be necessary to keep it in 
place by means of tape put about 14 inches apart ; thus 
a kilt right up to the waist would have two tapes, one 
14 inches from the bottom and the other about 28. 

Horizontal Folds. Figure 50. Plate 39- 

To produce these, extra length is required, the points 
below the folds would be exactly the same as the foun- 
dation ; each fold would consume about 4 inches of 
length in a fairly good substance cloth. The best 
method of arranging these satisfactorily — in the absence 
of draping it direct on the figure — is to get a dummy 
and make it up, by wrapping cloth, &c, to as near as 
you can judge the size and shape of the figure. The 
best ladies' tailors keep dummies so made up of all 
their best customers. Take the foundation, and hav 



. &J&Z& &PJ*. 





^a^ser^ 

TO CUTTING LADIES' GARMENTS. 



put it into the waist band, &c, arrange your folds of 
drapery on this till the desired effect is produced. 
There is no golden rule for this ; nothing but practice 
and experiment can teach you how to drape artistically 
for all your customers, inasmuch as every figure has its 
peculiar feature, its points of beauty to bring out, its 
points of ugliness to tone down ; in addition to which 
materials vary considerably in the way they form folds, 
or, in other words, drape ; so that what might be a 
good rale for one material or one figure, would not 
apply at all for another. The artistic effect of folds 
across the figure as illustrated on figure 50, is to make 
it appear wider and shorter. 

Diagonal Folds. Figure 51. Plate 39. 

These are produced at the expense of both length 
and width, and are the most difficult to arrange for in 
any other way than by draping the figure or the dummy 
as already described ; but if it is desired to form some 
idea of the shape the material required for this drapery, 
take the foundation pattern, mark where the folds are 
desired, and cut it across at each part so marked, and 
allow 4 inches (or more) space between the parts ; but 
this will only give a general idea, and must be correct- 
ed by actual draping on the figure or dummy. Dia- 
gonal folds have a very graceful appearance, as they 
neither produce length at the expense of width, nor 
width at the expense of length ; there is a grace about 
the curve which take away all hardness of outline, and 
makes it generally a favourite. It should be remem- 
bered that whenever a fold is introduced, the artistic 
effect is the same as if a line was placed on the figure, 
which makes it appear longer in the direction it is 
running. In arranging drapery it is always advisable 
to keep the straight thread of the material straight 
down the front ; as if it is twisted more to the one 
side than the other, the bias would be greater on the 
one side than the other, and would consequently cause 
the folds to hang differently ; in referring to this we 
are not ignoring the fact that draperies are often ar- 
ranged on the bias, but the same rule applies. If it is 
to be arranged on the bias, see that the centre of front 
forms the true bias, when the folds (if diagonal) will 
come on the straight of the material in the same way as 
if the warp was placed down the centre of front, the 
folds would be on the bias. We will not dwell on this 
subject of folds, &c, longer, as any variety that may 
be introduced must come under one of the three 
heads : horizontal, vertical, or diagonal ; and the same 
principles which govern them at one place must be 
applied to produce them in another in order to get 
similar effects. A most effective method of skirt 
making is arranged by the combination of material as 
illustrated on 





Figures 52 and 53, Plate 39. 

One of its especial features is its giving consonance 
to the costume, a rule of ornamentation that should 
never be lost sight of ; thus, suppose the bodice has a 
vest in it, the skirt should have a panel of the same 
material as the vest at some part. If for a stout lady 
it could not be better than up the centre of front, as 
illustrated on figure 53. By such means the figure is 
made to appear narrower ; the introduction of a front 
panel gives vertical lines, which divides the width and 
adds apparently to the length, which effect may still 
further be emphasized if the panels are slightly draped 
or of a striped material. A panel always appears to 
best advantage when it is of richer material than the 
skirt itself. 

Figure 52, Plate 39, 

Illustrates another method of usincr a combination of 
materials, which at different times has become very 
popular, especially when polonaises are in vogue. The 
same remarks we have just made as regards the repe- 
tition of idea from the bodice, applies to this ; but 
there is one remark we must not omit, and that is : 
never arrange the darkest material to come at the bot- 
tom, as at a little distance the length of the figure 
terminates with the light part, and if this is arranged 
to be the apron, the figure would be very much stunted. 
A reference to figure 50 will illustrate this, the length 
of the skirt apparently ending just below the braid. 
Figure 52 illustrates how it should be arranged, the 
light material being at the bottom. Figure 50 shows 
how it ought not to be done. If it is desired to get 
the dark part at the bottom, this defect may be avoided 
by the introduction of a flounce or crossway band along 
the bottom of the drapery, and so attracting the eye to 
notice it. These are little points, but it is in the atten- 
tion paid to such trifles that ladies' tailoring becomes a 
fine art. 

Skirt for Check Material, Figure 54. 

Checks have two serious drawbacks when used on 
any but the finest figures. First, they make the figure 
appear wider without adding to the height, and, 
secondly, they cut the figure up into squares, which at 
once enables the slightest difference in the sides of the 
wearer to be detected ; indeed, when the checks are not 
true, as they more often are not, they give the wearer a 
decidedly one-sided appearance. The best method of 
avoiding this is to arrange the material on the bias, 
which course avoids the hard set square, and instead of 
crossing the figure on the true horizontal and vertical, 
they ran diagonally, and then have a tendency rather 
to add to the height than the width. This same 



m. 




method is used very frequently for the hodice, but the 
more general way is to arrange the bodice with the 
pattern running in the same way as diagram 22, and 
the skirt on the bias. Much might be written on the 
varieties of checks, but our readers know their varieties 
and the many beautiful blends in which they are made 
and which makes them so attractive ; so we will 
pass on to 

Figure 55. Flounces or Tucks. 

The artistic effect of these is undoubtedly to create 
width at the expense of length. In the case of the 
former style, it is merely a series of flounces arranged 
one above the other on the foundation ; with the later 
style the skirt 
would be cut very 
much longer than 
was needed. For 
example : for 
every :i inch 
tuck desired, the 
skirt must be 
cut 6 inches 
longer, so that 
our readers can 
soon calculate 
the necessary 
quantity requir- 
ed in accord- 
ance with the 
number of tucks 
desired. This 
style of skirt 
would most pro- 
bably be made 
up without a 
foundation. In 
a modified style 
this is a very 
popular skirt for 

young ladies who are still growing, the one great re- 
commendation being, the flounces can be let down as 
they grow taller : but as the ladies' tailor does not do 
much for this class we will pass en to deal with 

Figure 56. Braided Skirts. 

Braid is always a favourite style of ornamentation 
with the high-class ladies' tailor ; and, when nicely 
done and the braid of good quality, it needs nothing 
else to stamp the garment as a high-class produc- 
tion. Braid is generally arranged on symmetrical 
designs, that is. the one side is an exact repetition 
of the other, only in reverse. When the ladies' tailor 



If liifltf 
^ii fii if 



Figure 55.— Flounces or Tucks, 



has to braid a skirt, he either has to get a ready pre- 
pared design that can be transferred to the material 
with a hot iron, or has to design one himself, which, if 
he has any idea of drawing, is a very easy operation. 
Let him take a daisy and a few leaves, or any other 
flower, and then blend them together, and ho will soon 
get a very pretty design. Having got this he folds his 
paper over and pricks it through with a good sized 
pin ; this gives him the other half of his design of the 
same pattern as his original drawing, but reversed. He 
then places this pricked design on his cloth, in the 
position he desires the braiding to be, and sprinkles 
some white powder over it — finely scraped pipeclay will 
do, but it is rather coarse, and French chalk is prefer- 
able. Having carefully gone over every pin-ho'.e with 

this, he removes the 
paper design, and then 
proceeds to fill in his 
design in a more sub- 
stantial way. Take 
some flake white and 
mix it with a little 
gum and water, and 
mark round the de- 
sign indicated by the 
spots with a quill pen, 
any part that may not 
be quite distinct being 
easily obtained by a 
reference to the design. 
Having got the out- 
line distinct, the put- 
ting on of the braid is 
a very simple process, 
always trying to ar- 
range the stitches so 
as not to show. If 
possihle, a strand of 
the braid should be 
Fig 56. -Braided Skirts. used for sewing. Use 

care, be patient, and the result will reward you 
The braid mostly used is a narrow Russia, though 
some very artistic results are got by using different 
kinds of braid, some of which are of a very ornamsntal 
character, and show up a decided contrast to the nar- 
row Russia, and in this way are useful in working in 
designs of leaves and flowers. Very much more might 
lie written on this subject of skirts and skirt drapery, 
but we have already extended our remarks somewhat, 
this being a subject that is not so well understood us 
other branches of the tailoring trade, but a little prac- 
tice and a little experiment on the lines we have sug- 
gested will soon simplify what may appear a difficult 
matter, and pave the way for success. We will now 
conclude this section by a few hints on 

ii£ 





Back Drapery 

As worn at present. This is simply a full width of 
.")4 inch material gathered or box pleated into the waist- 
band at the back. Sometimes it is arranged with one 
large box pleat, at others two, but the principle is the 
same. "When steels and bustles were worn, an extra 
round was needed at the top to go over them, but as 
these are now out of date, there is only the smallest 
amount of round necessary. The back is generally 
made with plenty of material in its drapery, but the 
same principles apply to it as with the front drapery as 
regards folds, &c., so that it will be unnecessary for us 
to repeat. 



-ooo 




Section Nine. 

Blouses, Shirts and Combinations. 

In reviewing the previous sections to see what gar- 
ments have not been treated of, we especially noticed 
those which form the subject of this section. 

Amongst the many special garments the tailor who 
caters for tl.e fair sex is called upon to make, the shirt 
and blouse are perhaps the garments that are mostly 
worn, being suitable for all kinds of outdoor exercise, 
be it boating, lawn tennis, or the latest development 
for ladies' cricket : but probably the larger share of 
the orders the tailor receives will lie for boating cos- 
tumes in flannel or similar materials. 

The Marlow Shirt. Diagrams 88 to 93. 



These are of course mostly made from cambric, and 
got up in the same way as a gent's shirt, the front 
being inserted of a different width stripe, or the front 
may be the only part striped, the body part being 
white. If our readers look at a gent's shirt, and see 
how that is made, they will have a capital guide for 
making these. There is, however, one important diffe- 
rence, they are left open all down the front, and only 
extend to about ."> inches below the waist. That part 
is generally worn under the skirt, a fancy waist belt 
being worn over the waist band of the skirt. A tape 
is placed at the waist, and a drawing tape run through 
it, thus enabling the fulness to be equally distributed 
all round the waist, or as may lie deemed the most 
effective. This garment is very popular amongst the 
frequenters of the Thames Valley in the Summer time, 
as well as at those fashionable seaside resorts, such as 
Brighton, Hastings, &c. 



The System. Diagram 88. Plate 40. 

Square lines V 21, V F: from V to F is one-sixth 
of the neck, as also is the bottom of the gorge, in fact 
the gorge is swept by point V : from V to 2 is one- 
eighth of the natural waist ; to sj is f inch less than 
one-fourth of the breast : to 1 '>h is the natural waist 
length, below which it is continued to taste ; from 2 to 
D is one-fourth breast, from which a line is squared 
down as shown, and a line drawn from F to I), which 
finds the slope of the shoulder : from 8 to AY is 2 
inches more than a fourth breast ; the scye may now 
be drawn, hollowing 1 inch in front of line 1): the 
side is drawn at right angles from AY, and the waist 
hollowed h inch or more ; a button stand is left on 
down the front of about 1 inch, and the front is 
complete. 

AYe now tike the front to cut the back, and lay it 
down as per dotted line of diagram 2 : fill in the back 
scye 1 inch, as in diagram : draw a line straight across 
from 1), and add 1 inch beyond the extreme edge of 
front, so that there will he about 2 inches to full on or 
pleat into the yoke on either side. 

The Yoke, Diagram 90, Plate 40. 



g! 



Is cut also by the forepart, which is represented by the *f$> 
dotted line, the shoulder seam is cut the same : lint to 
find the back seam, come up half way between the 
bottom of gorge and V, give a little extra width below 
I), and shape the remainder to taste. This style is 
very popular. We now pass on to 

The Sleeve, Diagram 91. 

From <> to 2 is 2 inches, or whatever is allowed over 
the fourth of the breast when drafting the forepart 
from «| to AY ; continue on to 17^, the length of 
sleeve desired : make from 2 to 8| the half size of 
scye, plus any allowance that may lie desired for pleat- 
ing on the shoulder, and make the width to taste. The 
bottom of the sleeve is put into a cuff, the outline of 
which is illustrated on diagram '.):!. 

Diagram '.)2 shows one of the many styles of collars 
worn on these garments, and which it is unnecessary 
for us to describe further, as the only variation neces- 
sary to introduce is the length. 

Lady's Blouse. Diagram 94. 

This is probably one of the simplest garments it is 
possible to cut, as it is really only the outline of a 
bodice, minus any waist suppressions. They may be 
worn in a similar way to the shirt described above, ai d 
the fulness arranged above the skirt at the waist. The 
doi and dash line across the front and hack illustrate 



^I^^^a. . 




-•^j^z&r^-- 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




the plan adopted when a yoke is desired, the lower part 
being often fulled on this line, in which case about 2 
or 3 inches must be added on beyond the outline of 
both back and front, according to the degree of fulness 
desired. 

The Sailor Collar. Diagram 95. 

These are often worn with blouses, sometimes sepa- 
rate, sometimes fastened to them ; being generally 
of a contrasting colour, they add much to the effect. 
They are very simple to cut, the system being as fol- 
lows : — Take a forepart and back of the size breast de- 
sired, and place the shoulder seams together, mark 
down the back seam for the centre of the collar, and 
then round the back neck and down the front as low 
as desired ; the length and width being quite a matter 
of taste, we can only refer our readers to the diagram 
as a guide, which is but an example to be varied from 
as desired. 

Either the sleeve shown on Diagram 91, or an 
ordinary sleeve, are suitable to be worn with the blouse, 
but whichever style is adopted, looseness must be a 
marked feature, otherwise it will not be in harmony 
with the body part ; for that reason, perhaps, Diagram 
91 style of sleeve would be the most suitable. 

Combinations. Dias. 96 to 99. Fig. 57. 

This garment has become very popular during the 
past few years, and is used for many kinds of athletic 
exercises, under short-kilted skirts, whilst in addition 
to this they are largely used for ordinary wear : so that 
no work on ladies' garments would be complete without 
it. They are made in so many different ways and 
from so many different materials, that we shall have to 
leave our readers to arrange these details, so at once 
proceed to describe 

The System. Diagram 96. Plate 41. 



Draw line AX; A to C is one-eighth natural waist ; 
A E one-fourth breast ; A H natural waist plus i an 
inch ; H J one-fourth seat plus 1 inch ; J X length of 
leg desired. A to B one-sixth neck ; C to D one- 
fourth breast ; E to F 1 inch less than one-fourth 
breast to find front of scye ; E to G one-fourth breast 
plus -1 to i\ : H to I one-fourth breast ; J to K one- 
fourth seat : K P drawn at right angles to J K, or 
parallel to J X ; P to width of leg desired ; J M 
half J K, or one-eighth seat ; L is midway between 
]\i and J. Take a fish out of forepart to make it fit 
close at waist, as per dotted line. If intended to fasten 
down the front, add on a button stand of about 1 inch, 
and the forepart is complete. 



The Back. Diagram 97. Plate 41. 

Take the cut-out forepart and place as per dotted 
lines, from H to T is 1 inch ; F to S is 1 inch ; A to 
R is f inch ; all the other points are as for the fore- 
part. It is customary to arrange them to fasten at the 
waist behind, when an extra inch should be left at 
bottom of back, to allow of the undersides over- 
lapping. 

Diagram 98, Plate 41, 

Illustrates the underpart of the lower portion, the 
dotted lines illustrate the forepart, H to is 3 inches. 
Draw line from M through U, measure up seat, and 
generally allow 3 inches beyond seat measure (if desired 
very easy allow more), and draw sideseam straight 
through from P X to W ; draw line H I across to W, 
and so get the length of side ; place the square on the 
seat seam YUV, and square across to W. The uuder- 
sides may be cut all in one with the top, by merely 
letting the undersides overlap h inch at P and X. 

Diagram 99, Plate 41. 

Is the sleeve. 1 to 2 is 2 inches, 2 to 3 is the length 
of forearm desired, 4 to 5 is the same, 2 to 4 is half __. 
size of scye, arid 3 to 5 is the width of sleeve desired. 
These combinations are frequently cut low at the neck, 
but our readers will readily be able to do this, as it only 
needs cutting as much as is desired from EB of back, 
and C B of forepart. 

Ladies' Drawers. 

The system as here laid down can be used for 
Knickers or Drawers ; cutting the topsides, as illus- 
trated by dotted line from Q to I, which is got by 
arranging the square one arm on H L and the other 
resting on I. These garments are almost invariably 
made without sideseams, which can be arranged as 
before described for combinations. The waist is re- 
duced to size when putting them into a waistband. 



Section Ten. 

Collars. Plate 42. 

The collar forms such an important part of every 
garment, that it would on no account do to omit it 
from any work that aimed at completeness ; and as we 
anticipate this volume going into the hands of many 
novices, we shall treat of them rather fully ; and if 
perchance Ave go into the smaller details too much for 
the more experienced, we crave their indulgence on 
behalf of the novices. 

Stand Collar. Diagram 100. 

This is the simplest form of collar possible to put on 
any garment, it is illustrated on Figs. 23 and 24, Plate 
12. A little examination of the neck will show it must 
be longer round the sewing on edge than at the top, 
this is provided for by cutting a round sewing on edge ; 
and it may be as well to state that the rounder the 
sewing to edge the shorter it will be on the top, and 
consequently fit the closer. The system for producing 
tbese is as follows : — Draw line W D F, and make TV 
to F the half size of the neck ; come up from F to V 
1 inch as a standard (more if a very close fit round the 
top edge is desired). D is midway between F and W. 
Draw curve from V to D, and continue on to W. V 
to 2 * is drawn at right angles to V D, the height also 
to taste. TV 2 is at right angles to TV D, the height 
also to taste ; W 2 may be cut on the crease or not, as 
fancy may dictate. In making, it is interlined with a 
good stiff buckram, and in putting this in it should be 
put in rather shorter than the outside, as the position it 
occupies on the wearer being a decided circle, renders 
it imperative for the outside to be the longer. "We will 
not describe the putting on of this collar, as it is done 
in the same way as is described below, when dealing of 
Diagram 110, so we pass on to deal of 

The Panteen Collar. Diagram 101. 

This is illustrated on Fig. 21), and may be best de- 
scribed as a double stand collar, as it is cut exactly 
the same as described above, with a second collar cut 
deeper, as illustrated by dotted line below W D F. In 
making, the stand collar is put on first, and then the 
other is sewn to its top edge by its lining ; the outside 
being arranged to come about h inch over the top : the 
lining of the stand collar coming over the top of this is 
neatly felled in the ordinary way This is a very 
popular collar, and has a much smarter appearance than 
the plain stand collar, which it resembles so much. It 
"orn on almost all garments : Blouses, Bodices, 




Jackets, and Ulsters, all have this style of finish at the 
neck occasionally. 

The Shakespeare Collar. Diagram 102. 

Is really only a variety of the Panteen, the fall half 
being cut much narrower behind, and with a long 
point in the front. It is mostly used on Blouses, &c., 
in place of that illustrated on Diagram 92. 

The Medici Collar. Diagram 103. 

This is illlustrated on Figs. 13, 41, 42, 43, and 
others ; and, as our readers are well aware, it is, at the 
time we write, the most popular finish for all garments 
at the neck. It is really a stand collar cut with a 
hollow sewing to edge, and consequently ; a very full 
or long top edge : indeed, just such an effect as would 
be produced by taking an ordinary stand collar and 
inserting Y's all along the top. The excessive size on 
the top edge allows it to be worn much deeper than it 
could be in any other way, and consequently this com- 
mends it to those who are exposed to inclement 
weather ; indeed it has been called the storm collar. 
The system for producing this is as follows : — W 1 ) F 
at right angles, TV I) the height of collar desired. W to 
H H inches, D to F half neck measure minus f inch, 
F to Y 3 inches. Draw I) V with a gradual curve, and 
outline the top part to taste ; and as these may be 
finished square, pointed, or curved, there is consider- 
able scope for the designer. The system, as here laid 
down, Avill produce a good average style ; if more ful- 
ness is desired round the top, increase the quantities 
from F to Y and TV to 1^. In making, it is of course 
interlined with buckram ; and, as the inside of these 
show, the lining is generally of silk or some bright 
material, but whatever is used in this way it should be 
nicely and neatly finished. 

Prussian Collar. Diagram 104. 

This is not so much worn now as it was at one time, 
but in order to describe all kinds of collars, we give it 
a place. The system is as follows : — W D half neck, 
D F, 1 inch, draw curve of sewing on edge from TV to 
F, TV to V and F to i is the stand, below which, as 
from V to I, is the fall. In making, the sewing to 
edge must be well stretched in the hollow. In style 
this much resembles the Panteen Collar, but is not so 
deep in the stand at front, and is cut all in one piece, 
though it is nothing unusual to find the under u, 'Jar 
arranged with the stand and fall cut separate. Espe- 
cially when it is made of very thick material, as it fre- 
quently is for Box Coats and Driving Capes, such as & 
ladies are now wearing for driving, &c. 




^r^ter^r 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




Stand and Fall Collar. Diagram 105. 

This is illustrated on many of the Figures, perhaps 
Figures 1!) and 20 are as good specimens as any. 
Figure 1!) illustrates the S. B. turn, and Figure 20 the 
I). B. style. This collar is perhaps the most difficult 
of all to the novice ; but as it is a very important one, 
we will endeavour to describe all about it in detail, and 
begin with the system. Begin by taking the forepart 
of the garment it is intended to go on, decide where 
you wish it to turn, as at A, Diagram 105 ; mark up 
from B to C a trifle less than the depth of stand 
desired : having previously decided that the depth of 
the stand or the upcome on the neck above the collar 
seam should he 1| inches, and the fall If inches : the 
fall is that part which turns over from the crease. 
Both these quantities are fair average quantities. For 
such a collar come up from B to C 1 inch, and draw a 
line from A through C to D. Get the length of the 
collar by measuring from G to F the width of the back 
neck, as from 1 to 2 of Diagram 110, allowing about 
h inch extra length. Now come down from D to E 
the difference between the stand 1^ and the fall If 
viz., ^ an inch. The object of this is to give more 
relative length from H to I as the fall gets deeper, a 
very necessary arrangement. Draw line from E to C 
slightly curved — this is the crease edge on the part 
where the collar folds over ; from E to F measure down 
the depth of stand desired, in this case 1^ inches, and 
connect F to B, and continue on to J, leuting the 
collar overlap at J about £ inch. E to H is the fall 
behind, and J to I the same in front ; and as this is to 
a large extent a matter of taste, no more definite rules 
than we have laid down can be given. "With regard to 
back of collar from F E to H, it maybe as well to illus- 
trate, as a want of proper attention at that part fre- 
quently results in a collar standing away behind. 

Diagram 106, Plate 42, 

Illustrates how this should be arranged. Place the 
collar on the back neck, as shown at F G, when F to E 
should form a continuation of the back seam, and above 
this it should be sprung out, so that when it is turned 
over at the crease row E it will have sufficient spring 
to go over F. This completes the cutting as far as the 
system is concerned, and what we now give is more of 

A practical explanation. 

We will assume the pattern of the collar has been 
cut out in paper, and we now proceed to cut out the 
inside collar, as that is really the collar that produces 
all the fit and style. This is sometimes made from 
different material to the garment, especially when the 



cloth is very thick, in such cases a thin Melton of as 
nearly the same colour as possible is used, the advan- 
tage being that it is thinner, and more easily worked 
up ; but we do not advise this except when the cloth 
used for the garment is very thick and unyielding. In 
cutting the inside collar from the material, cut it on 
the bias ; and on no account cut it from the length- 
ways of the material ; it is far preferable to join it in 
order to get it on the bias, as the joins are out of sight. 
It is well understood that cloth on the bias is very 
easily stretched or shrunk, and consequently is more 
easily manipulated. If there is any face or way of the 
wool to the materia], it should run from H E to F, 
Diagram 106. Now join the collar at the back, either 
by taking a small seam or, if the material will stand it, 
by stoating ; this done, the next step is to arrange the 
collar canvas. 

Diagram 107, Plate 42, 

Shows how it should be put in : the cross marks repre- 
senting the threads of the canvas. The canvas should 
be shrunk by being well wetted and dried without the 
use of the iron before cutting, and in cutting it out 
sufficient should be left for working in. It should 
always be cut in two halves, otherwise it is impossible 
to get both ends alike ; the one end having the threads 
running in an altogether different direction to the 
other when cut whole, and consequently the effects are 
seen in the collar when made up. If cut as illustrated 
on Diagram 107, the straight thread will run from 1 to 
2. Join it by letting the two ends slightly overlap 
each other, and we next baste the collar lining and 
canvas together. The fall of the collar should lie flat 
on the canvas, and then a row of basting put along the 
crease row, and then the stand part of the canvas being 
on the bias, can be easily stretched to fit the stand of 
the collar lining. The first step in the stitching and 
padding of a collar is to stitch along the crease as 
from 1 to 2. 

Diagram 108, Plate 42, 

And in doing this the hand should be pulled fairly 
tight, so as to draw in that part in accordance with 
your customer's requirements ; _ stooping figure with 
head forward requires it drawn in more than the nor- 
mal, whilst the erect or head backward type require 
less. The stitching of the stand comes next, and the 
object of this is to make that part of the collar firm 
and stiff, to stand up ; this is usually done about four 
rows to the inch, and may be either done by hand or 
machine. If by hand, it should be a short fore stitch, 
so that the collar lining would represent the appear- 
ance of Diagram 108, as from 1, 2, 3. For the fall 
padding stitch is required : the object of padding 



-^jgi^gyPi^c-- 





"%^|^w- 



TO CUTTING LADIES GARMENTS. 




fall is to get it to curl in well, which effect is produced 
by curling the canvas over the finger, and so getting 
it on longer than the collar lining. But as most of our 
readers will understand all this, we will not describe it 
in further detail, but pass on to 

Diagram 109, Plate 42, 

Which illustrates the pressing process. The object of 
pressing is to mould the collar into the required shape, 
as well as to press the sewing that has been put into 
the collar. This is best accomplished by the aid of a 
thoroughly hot iron, and the collar pressed until it is 
quite dry. The shape when this operation is finished 
should be somewhat after the outline of Diagram 109, 
the stand being represented as turned over : whilst the 
effect of the padding will now be seen by the curling 
of the fall. Now smooth over the outside collar on the 
double, as cloth always shrinks more on the double 
than the single. By smoothing we do not mean stretch 
it, but merely smooth it, though it is no detriment for 
the stand portion to be slightly stretched. Next fit the 
collar to the neck, to see the collar ends harmonise with 
the turn, as well as to see that it breaks at the right point. 
Having corrected the collar in any detail that is neces- 
sary, we proceed to cover it. Let us suppose the edges of 
our garment is to be bound. Lay the fall of the outside 
collar quite flat on the sleeve board, and on this place 
the fall of the collar lining, and put a basting thread 
along the crease row, and then the fall is basted from 
the outside, the collar being slightly bent to allow of 
the outside being a trifle the longer, then turn the 
collar over and put in a row of stitching about § of an 
inch from the crease, this keeps the stand in its place- 
The collar is then bound and sewn on. To illustrate 
this latter process we give 

Diagram 110. Plate 42. 

Across the back from 1 to i it should go fair, or of 
the two very slightly tight, from 2 to 3 the collars 
should be fulled on about ^ an inch, and from 3 to 4 
commence by putting it on tight up to the break, and 
beyond that fair or plain. Now press open the seam, and 
serge the neck, and in front of the break of the collar 
canvas and the forepart canvas should be drawn to- 
gether edge to edge over the collar seam. It only 
remains now to turn in the collar and facing, and draw 
the collar seam ; the turn in should be as small as pos- 
sible, and exactly on the top of the collar seam, as by 
these means it gives a much cleaner and flat appearance 
to the front. The only remaining touch is the pressing 
off, and our collar is complete. We will now pass on 
to deal with 



Gape Collars. 
Diagrams 111, 112 and 113. Plate 42. 

These are collars laid on the garment, and are cut by 
the shoulder seams of back and forepart, being placed 
together as per dotted lines, when the outline of the 
lapel desired is marked ; 3 is the bottom termination 
of it, and the sewing to point is marked from 1 by 2 to 
3, beyond which a seam is left as illustrated by dot and 
dash line ; this is made up independently of the gar- 
ment, and then sewn in the position desired from the 
back, and turned over, with the result of the shaded 
part of 111. Diagram 111 is the S. B. style of turn, 
and is often used for ladies' bodices, when the part 
outlined by 3. 4, 5 would have the appearance of a 
\ est. Our Diagram represents this lapel of velvet, from 
which material these are often made. 



Diagram 112, Plate 42, 



Illustrates 
This may 



. f4i*ZZ^&fi> : 



the D. B. style of lapel with silk facing. 

be produced as a Cape collar, as previously 
described, though it would more likely be used for 
Jackets. There should only be the smallest possible 
space between the top of the lapel to the collar end. 
The silk facing is brought to the ends of the holes, and 
carrie 1 over where the drawing seam of the collar would 
be, or even higher ; the aim should be to give the 
collar the appearance of being the same width all the 
way round as far as possible. The silk mostly used for 
this is a bright satin faced fine twill ; and when used 
on some of the dull or rough materials now so popular. 
has a very stylish appearance. Before quitting this 
diagram it may be as well to state that the holes in the 
turn should run with the top of the lapel, and in like 
manner the silk should follow the outline of the side of 
the lapel. Great care should be exercised in putting on 
this silk, as being used for ornament only, the effect 
would be spoilt if it was not put on artistically. Even- 
possible effort should be used to get both sides alike — 
a result which is not so easy to achieve as may appear 
at first sight. 

Diagram 113, Plate 42, 

Illustrates a roll collar laid on ; this is cut exactly as 
previously described, with the exception of the outline 
of the roll, which must of course be run to taste. Fur 
collars of this kind are frequently put on Winter 
Jackets, and undoubtedly give them a very stylish 
appearance. In cutting fur it should be done with a 
knife, and the pile or nap arranged to run the wrong 
way, which remark also applies to velvet, as it then 
presents a much richer appearance. In ordinary col- 
lars, the velvet is always cut on the bias, as that is the 

G 




only way by which anything like a satisfactory result 
can be obtained, but with these cape collars, a rather 
wider sweep of material is required than ordinarily, and 
as very little working up is needed, it is not of so much 
importance. 

This we think exhausts the subject of collars, and if 
we have gone into detail rather too minutely for some 
of our more advanced readers, we can only plead the 
importance of the subject, and the general ignorance 
that prevails on this topic. 



Section Eleven. 

Defects and Remedies. 

Although this is re illy outside the scope originally 
intended for this work, yet we have little doubt a few. 
hints on the various defects generally met with, will 
prove of service. Let us take first the defects that 
arise from 

An Incorrect Balance. 
Diagram 114. Plate 43. 

Too long a front shoulder produces a fold or series 
of folds all across the front, as from E to H : the re- 
medy is shown by dot and dash line 7, 8 1). Too long 
a back balance produces folds all across back, as from 
A to B, showing more especially at B. Remedy as per 
dotted line 1 2 3. These are good illustrations of too 
much length producing horizontal folds. 

The reverse of these defects, viz., a too short back 
balance, would produce the garment too low at back 
neck owing to its fitting close at waist, and thus being 
dragged down : whilst, if it was worn unbuttoned, it 
would hang away from the waist behind. The easiest 
way to remedy is to either pass the back up on the 
sidebody, and re-adjust the scye ; or if there is plenty 
of length about the waist of the garment, shorten the 
front shoulder and deepen the scye, producing extra 
relative length of back. A too short front shoulder 
produces tightness of scye, fulness at top of sideseam, 
creases down front sin wider, <fcc. If you have an inlay 
on shoulder, let it down ; if not reverse the suggested 
alteration to the back, viz., deepen the scye and shorten 
the back. 

Creases from blade to the underarm. 

Diagram 114, Plate 43, 

As illustrated from to 1), are caused by a too straight 
sideseam or insufficient receptacle for the blades. The 
remedy is illustrated by dotted lines 4. .">, li. 




Diagonal creases below waist, 

As from K to L, are produced by too much being added 
on the one side below the waist, and not enough on the 
other, so producing a drag from K to L ; the remedy 
is to let oat from 14 to 15, and if necessaiy to reduce 
the hips to their original size ; take in from K down- 
wards. 

Creases at waist. Dia. 114. Plate 43, 

As at I, J and (i H have two principal causes. ] . 
Linings put in too short. 2. Too tight over the hips. 
In either case remedy accordingly. All linings should 
be put in very long over the waist — See our remarks 
on making up in previous sections. If it is too tight 
over the hips the remedy will be to let out as from 10 
to 11, and 12 to 13. Each part should be stretched on 
the outside as at K, I, J, G, H, and shrink in the 
middle. The bones should also be put in very long. 

Looseness of front edge. 
Diagram 115. Plate 44, 

As at L, M, is produced by a too round front edge, as 
our readers will have gathered from the preceding 
pages : the front edge should be straight, or if cut 
round, every bit of round drawn in and worked back 
over the breast. If this defect exists in a made up 
garment, the best way to alter it as per 1, 2, 3, 4, and 
then draw in the front edge to work the fulness back. 
In cutting a fresh garment, the remedy is illustrated 
by 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Looseness at front of scye. 
Diagram 116. Plate 44, 

Is produced by an insufficient provision for the busts. 
One remedy is to alter as per 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and draw in 
the front edge, but that is not nearly as good a remedy 
as illustrated by fi, 7, 8, !> 10, viz., let out under the 
arms, and take in at the dart, but a reference to dia- 
gram 116 will, we think, make this quite clear. If 
there is any difficulty in pressing away the 

Fulness at the top of the darts, 

Put a trifle of wadding about the size of the finger 
nail, and then try to press it away. If this is not suffi- 
cient, the darts have not been taken high enough. 
Remedy accordingly. 



. js^aiEg^i^v 




Greases in shoulder. 

These rank amongsc the most troublesome defects, 
and like all others may arise from various causes ; such 
for instance as a shoulder of the wrong shape, a short 
collar, badly put in linings, or canvas, &c. The most 
general cause of this defect is an insufficient distance 
from A to B, and too great a distance from B to C ; it 
arises from what many term a too crooked shoulder. 
On the diagram we illustrate two ways of remedying, 
one by the dot and dash line, the other by the dotted 
line. These alterations apply only when the defect has 
been caused by a defective form : but if, as often is 
the case, they arise from faulty manipulation, the 
remeiy must be found in that direction. 

Greases round neck. Dia. 118. Plate 44. 

These most frequently arise from the lining being 
put in tight. The shoulder being hollow requires the 
linings put in very wide over the shoulder, and in many 
cases this defect can be remedied by giving more width 
to the linings, &c. Some we know apply the remedies 
in a negative way, i.e., they narrow the outside, which 
practically amounts to the alteration illustrated by the 
dotted line at neck. 

Loose in back and tight in the front. 
Diagram 119. Plate 44. 

This is a defect frequently met with by cutters who 
take insufficient measures, &c. Every one will at once 
agree upon the wide difference there may be in the 
form of ladies' figures of the same size chest. One 
lady of say 34 breast will have a well developed chest, 
and prominent bust ; the other will have no figure at 
all ; hence it is evident that to cut the same shape gar- 
ment for both must end in failure. When this has 
been done, to remedy is a somewhat difficult matter ; 
indeed, it would require either new foreparts or a vest 
inserted down the fronts, unless very large inlays had 
been left all over. The alteration shown on diagram 
199 will probably be more useful when cutting a fresh 
pattern, though of course the variations shown are the 
alterations required in the made up garment also, viz., 
a piece taken off sidebody from A to B, and sidepiece 
from C to I), the front being advanced at E F, and so 
giving the extra width to the chest needed. Do not 
give a round front to this figure, as the busts being 
prominent there is the greater depression between them, 
and consequently the greater need of shortness down 
the centre of front. 

We have now dealt with the principal defects usually 
met with in body garments., and we have treated of 



sleeves in the section devoted to them. In suggesting 
remedies we have not laid down any quantities, as such 
must be decided on the merits of each case. 




-ooo- 



Section Twelve. 

Miscellaneous. 

In getting up a work on Ladies' Tailoring, there are 
many little things which, though very useful in them- 
selves, cannot be properly classified under any of the 
previous sections, so we purpose dealing w ith such in 
this section. We take first 

Swiss Belts. 
Diagram 120. Figures 58 ar.d 59. Plate 45. 

These are very popular at the present time, many of 
them being made much deeper than our illustration, 
but, as far as the cutting is concerned, it is the same. 
The ordinary close-fitting Bedice or Jacket pattern is 
taken as illustrated by dotted line, and the outline of 
the belt is then marked as much, above and below the 
waist as may be desired ; care must be taken to avoid 
getting it too hollow at top and bottom of the various 
parts, or there will be a peak at the seam. The aim 
must be to get it to run true when finished, rather than 
when cut. These belts are made up with bones under 
the various seams as for a Bodice, which will also neces- 
sitate the lining being put in extra long. It will be 
noticed there is only one dart taken out, which will 
be found quite sufficient. Figure 58 shows the front 
laced up, but this is not necessary back and front, so 
that if desired the front may be cut on the crease, as it 
is quite straight, though the introduction of a seam 
frequently adds to the effect. The next detail we will 
notice is 

Dovetail Tacks. 
Diagrams 121 and 122. Plate 45. 

Dovetail tacks make one of the nicest finishes pos- 
sible for box pleats, the ends of pockets, &c., though 
perhaps it is open to the objection that it is rather 
showy. Very great care is necessary to execute it 
nicely, one of the chief points being to keep the threads 
very regular. Another very essential feature is that all 
three sides shall be exactly equal. See 

Diagram 121. 

Commence by chalking on the cloth a triangle of the 
size you desire the tack to be when finished. This, 
although a very simple matter, has been a bit of a 



.j2^^ g^3ika . 




: e*rd&&W'~ 



THE CUTTERS PRACTICAL GUIDE 




puzzle to more than one of the workmen we have seen 
attempt it : and as it is a very essential point to have 
this very exact, we will give minute instructions how 
to draw it. Draw line B C, and make a mark exactly 
in the centre between these two points, and square up 
at right angles to it to point A. Having decided on 
the size you wish it from B to C, measure across from 
B towards A the same amount, and make a mark where 
it touches this line, when it will be found C to A will 
be the same distance, and thus you will have an 
equilateral triangle, i.e., all the sides are equal. Now 
proceed to bar these three sides with twist in the same 
manner as you would for a bar-tack, i.e., about two or 
three times, but be careful to keep the corners very 
true ; and having thus barred from A to B, B to C, 
and C to A, you are now in a position to proceed with 
the tacking proper, which you do by bringing your 
needle up as near point A as possible at 1 , and take 
twist across and prick needle through at 2 as near point, 
C as you can bring it back at 3, also as near C as pos- 
sible, and carry it across to 4 up again at 5, and across 
to point (!, which will complete the first stitch ; and 
you come to your second in the same manner by coming 
up at 1 as near the other stitch as you can, across and 
down at 2, up at 3, across and down at 6, and so on 
till you have finished it, when it will present the 
appearance of diagram 2 ; and we think there are few 
features which add a more artistic effect to a lady's 
Ulster or Jacket than this, especially when applied to 
the top of a box pleat, for which part it seems especially 
suitable. 

How to take the Pattern of an old 
Garment. 

This is essentially the dressmakers' method, who 
makes not the slightest claim to scientific knowled»v : 
but it has also to be resorted to by the best of cut- 
ters, so that although extremes meet, yet there is a 
marked difference in their methods of doing the same 
things. The former slavishly follows the run of every 
seam, whilst the cutter merely takes the essentials of fit 
from the old garment, and then goes to work to infuse 
as much art as he possibly can, so as to, as far as pos- 
sible, bring out the points of beauty or tone down those 
prominent features which would detract from the grace 
of the garment on the figure. The exact method they 
each use, however, is as follows : — The dressmaker takes 
her pattern garment and pins paper on each part, and 
by placing it over her knee, she is enabled to get the 
exact shape, and then by allowing seams on all sides, 
she can thus produce afac simile garment ; audit would 
be idle for us to say the method is not successful, as we 
have seen some first-class results produced in this way. 



Some of them go to the trouble of ripping one side of 
the old garment, and tracing with a wheel through 
exactly where the seam was sewn ; and having done so, 
to remake the garment. That, however, is generally 
the result of a want of experience of the other way, and 
which is equally good if done carefully. In contrast to 
this, however, we will show 

The Tailors' Method 

As adopted by a well-known West End tailor, as fol- 
lows : — Whenever a garment was ordered which he was 
unable to measure the lady for, he would send the old 
garment to a firm of bust makers to have a dummy 
made to fit the bodice, by which means he would be 
able to successfully cater for the wants of that par- 
ticular customer without a try on, even if she were in 
the Antipodes ; as he would, for all practical purposes, 
have her duplicate to try on as many times as he could 
wish. This method, of course, entails an extra cost 
(about 10s. we are informed) on the first order ; but 
the after result certainly justifies the outlay, and as the 
bust would be always ready for use at any time, the 
first cost would be the only one, and would be of use 
for every kind of garment. Having once obtained this, 
it only remains to follow his usual method ; but all 
tailors cannot fellow this plan on account of the 
expense, so they usually fit the old bodice on a dummy 
of figure as near the same size and shape as possible, 
and pad it up to the bodice wherever the figure is lack- 
ing. Another method is to lay down the garment so 
that each piece lies flat, and take a tracing of it by 
means of a pricker in a similar manner to the dress- 
makers' method ; but this requires practice to do 
it successfully. 

We now pass on to another method of cutting, viz., 

Grading. Diagrams 123 to 126. Plate 45. 

By this method a pattern which has been found to 
fit satisfactorily is used as a starting basis, and which 
may be taken as the shaded pattern in the diagrams. 
Now draw lines as shown above P, continuing it above 
also from to Q, and from R (which is level with the 
bottom of the armhole) through S, and from R to T. 
Vary for every 2 inch in the total size of Breast at P § in. 

» v ij n N5 8 '' 

ft J- 

Tl 

m j> n »> 2 » 

TT i 

?» »J V ?? ^2 " 

Whilst in the small sizes it will be as well to shorten 
the waist as at 0, V, U, say \ inch for every 2 inches 
in the total size of the breast. Turning to 



.. (ajj^KyiLS, . 




The Forepart, 

Draw the line from L to K in the trne perpendicular ; 
from G which is at the front of scye to H, from I to J, 
from K to M, and from I to X, and 
Vary for every 2 inch in the total size of breast at L § in. 

H l 

55 55 J) 55 1J - 2 55 

J 1 

55 55 55 55 ' 2 » 

M 1 

55 55 "5 55 ■ i,x 2 55 

55 55 55 »5 •''2 55 . 

The same variation in the length of the waist to be 
made as was done with the back. For a sleeve, draw a 
line as from A through B to 0, and vary i an inch for 
every 2 inches in the total breast ; vary the width at 
the elbow about f , and at the cuff } inch for every 2 in. 
total breast, whilst the length may be shortened say \ 
an inch for the small ones at the cuff in addition to the 
variation in the length produced by the grading at the 
top, which latter will be found quite sufficient for the 
large sizes. The collar only requires varying § at the 
back at X, Diagram 123, the front at X X being left the 
same, a trifle narrower at W being perhaps needed for 
the small sizes. This then constitutes the method of 
grading, and where it is desirable to reproduce a given 
style of pattern with special characteristics, it will be 
found a very effective method, and is specially suitable 
for manufacturing trades rather than the artist tailor 
who caters for the wants of every customer on separate 
lines, so as to obtain the highest results, rather than to 
produce a set of patterns with the same characteristic 
running throughout the whole set. 

There are, of course, many other features and details 
associated with ladies' tailoring, but which the scope of 
this work, large as it is, will not permit of being treated 
here. These will be found, from time to time, in our 
monthly journal, the bodies' Titilor. 




Section Thirteen. 

Art in Relation to Ladies' Garments. 
Diagrams 128 to 134. Plate 46. 

Before concluding, we feel it imperative to lay a few 
claims for art before oar readers, as the subject is of 
such vast importance. There is so much that might be 
written upon it, that the difficulty presents itself, in 
deciding what to leave out. and what to give ; but after 
a little consideration, we think this will be met so far 
by a brief treatment of the subject under the three 
headings of 

Form, Colour, and Ornamentation, 

Which may suffice to awaken an interest in our readers' 
minds, and so induce them to study it more deeply from 
those works specially devoted to it. Form and colour 
have been called the vowels and consonants of the 
silent language of creation. It is by their aid that 
nature discloses all that is beautiful, lovely, or sublime. 
Sometimes she employs them separately, sometimes to- 
gether, but however used, there is always one more 
dominant than the other, the secondary element merely 
adding beauty to the primary, and in this way forms 
ornamentation, and consequently ornamentation may 
consist of either form or colour, or both, We will take 
each of these features in turn, and make a brief survey 
of it in its various phases from a tailor's standpoint. 
Let us take first 

Form. 

First of all there is the form of fit, embracing not 
only the shape in which the garment is cut, but also 
the form that is infused by the tailor's manipnlation — 
stretching, shrinking, building up, or toning down, in 
all its various phases ; all of which go to make up a 
garment of beauty. Then there is the form of style, 
the fashion phase of the subject, and this involves a 
study, not only the styles of the period, but also the 
habits of life, the social position, the age, and the form 
of the body in order to arrive at a suitable style of out- 
line for the garment. Let us take a brief glance at 

The form of fit. 

A study of our earlier pages, where we treat of 
anatomy somewhat fully, will show the cutter where 
the prominence and depressions of the body are to be 
found, and if he is in any doubt, let him study his own 
body, and he will soon realise the importance of making 
provision for these ; this may either be done by cut or 
manipulation. Of the matter of cut we have treated in 
our section dealing with "The Principles of Fit : " and 



-^Igj^^Pi^p- 



as long as the seams runs exactly over the prominence 
or depression, all that is necessary will he to provide for 
them hy suppressions, &c. ; but as soon as the seams 
run to the one side or the other, then manipulation will 
be necessary, as for instance in the sideseams : if the 
back is cut very wide and straight, then the back must 
be fulled on to the sidebody ; but if narrow and hollow, 
then the sidebody must be fulled on, so that the pocket, 
as it were, for the prominence, is located in the right 
place. But if the cutter once realises that the human 
figure has its points of depression and prominence, and 
that the garment he is cutting has to fit that, and not 
to lie flat and smooth on a board, then he will realise 
the importance of the form of fit. 

The form of style 

May then claim his attention. Fashion must be con- 
sulted, but if he would be an artist tailor he must tone 
down fashion follies by the application of art rules. If the' 
garment is loose and baggy, vertical lines may be in- 
troduced to take away the shortening tendency of the 
amplitude of width. This may be either done by the 
use of striped material, the position of the seams or the 
method of ornamentation. The multiplication of seams 
makes the various parts narrower, and so introduces 
length, and our readers will And ladies are quite aware 
of this phase of the subject, and will expect the cutter 
by this means to modify or tone down any defect that 
may exist in their figure. Always avoid sharp angles ; 
let your lines run with graceful sweeps ; there are 
scarcely any sharp angles in the outliue of the human 
figure, all are softened down, and instead of a sharp 
angle there is a graceful curve : and if we remember 
the aims of art are to elevate, to ennoble, to beautify, 
we shall realize that in nature we have our copy, and 
that it should be our aim to present nature in its most 
ideal forms ; and this it will he found can only be done 
by the avoidance of angles and the introduction of 
curves. Study Hogarth's line of beauty, infuse it in 
the outline of your garments, and you will soon be a 
master of art of improving the form of style. It will 
at once be apparent that it would be out of keeping to 
dress an elderly person up as a young one, or a peasant 
as a king, so we will leave this phase of the subject, and 
hasten on to a s^udy of that all important one 

Colour. 



Under this heading we must take a brief glance at 
(1) the combination of various shades <>r hues, so that 
each shall assist the other ; (2) the effects and suitability 
of the various colours for different complexions : and 
the artistic effect of checks and stripes. Colour 




depends on light. In the dark all colours are the same 
and we know the single ray of white light is composed 
of all colours, and is easily divisable by the prism into 
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, and indigo. 
These seven were looked upon by Sir Isaac Newton as 
primary colours, or colours of the first importance : but 
specialists in this branch, such as Sir David Brewster, 
now look upon red, yellow, and blue as the only 
primaries, contending that the others ai\: produced by 
the mixture of these in some form or other, and that 
these three stand out as the elements of colour. White 
and black are not colours themselves, but represent 
light and darkness, whilst a mixture of the two forms 
the neutral tint we call grey. Every colour has its 
complementary, this is composed of the remaining por- 
tions of the three primaries not used in its formation ; 
thus the complementary of red is green ; of yellow, 
purple : of blue, orange. The green, purple, and 
orange being the mixture of the other two primaries 
required to make white light. To produce harmony in 
colour or complete satisfaction to the eye, the presence 
of all three primaries is required, either alone or a com- 
bination : and when so used they each add to the in- 
tensity of the other ; thus red appears much redder 
when placed on green, and so on. But it is not neces- 
sary to combine them just in those forms, half shades 
or tertiary colours produce a less glaring effect : they 
are produced by a mixture of the three primaries in 
different quantities. Citrine, russet, and olive are the 
three most important tertiaries. In citrine there is a 
predominance of yellow, hence it harmonises well with 
purple or violet. In olive there is an extra quantity of 
blue, it harmonises well with orange ; and russet, which 
is largely composed of red, harmonises well with green, or 
proper proportions of olive and citrine. The complemen- 
tary arrangement as above described, says " Chevruel," 
is of the first importance. In Diagram 127 the com- 
plementary colours are arranged opposite eaoh other, 
thus blue and orange, red and green, and so on : the 
triangle shows the three primaries, whilst between each 
point is illustrated the combination of the primaries 
to produce binaries : thus equal portions of yellow and 
blue produces green ; a preponderance of yellow gives 
a yellowish green, and so on. Combinations of the same 
colour on different shades is called the harmony of 
analogy, and often produces some very pretty effects, 
as in the combination of Oxford and Cambridge blues ; 
but when two tones of the same colour are placed side 
by side in this way, the dark one will appear darker, 
and the light one lighter. When locking at a bright 
colour on a black ground, there is a tendency for the 
eye to surround it with its complementary, and thus 
often make the black suffer. Bet us now examine the 
suitabilitv of the different 





Colours to suit certain complexions. 

For our purpose we will divide the complexions into 

two classes, the dark and the fair, or the brunette and 
the blonde. As a general rule it will be found reds 
and yellows suit dark people best, and blue is the 
colour which shows off the fair beauty to the best 
advantage. Black, white, and grey suit all people ; a 
soft deep black, such as velvet, will set off a blonde ; 
whilst a bright black, such as black satin, will set off 
the brunette. White, and all those colours which reflect 
the most light, have the effect of making people appear 
larger than they are ; whilst black, and all colours 
which absorb the light, make people look smaller, and 
consequently a stout person would appear to best advan- 
tage in a black dress of dull material : whilst, on the 
other hand, a little woman would be seen to the best 
advantage in a white dress made from some brilliant 
material. Before quitting this subject we must not 
omit to point out 

The importance of accessories 

And details of a costume : such, for instance, as head 
gear, gloves, parasol, shoes, &c, which must not only 
ie in harmony with the costume, but combine with it 
the complexion, the colour of hair, eyes, &c, to form the 
complement of colour. Many a firm has made a lasting 
reputation by attention to such details : and if we 
would follow in their footsteps, we must attach due 
importance to these matters, and study them accordingly. 

The effect of pattern. 




Colour helps to give expression to form, and probably 
the pattern of material is the best illustration we can 
give of this : and as different styles of patterns have 
different effects, independent of the colours embraced 
in their formation, it will be well for us to examine 
this phase. 

Stripes add length in whatever direction they are 
running, they are nearly always popular running ver- 
tically, as in Diagram 12*, as in that way they add 
height to the figure : they are seldom used horizontally 
or running round the figure, as Diagram 12'.t, as in 
such a manner they make the figure wider and shorter 
(a reference to diagrams will illustrate this, the circles 
having the appearance of being slightly oval by elonga- 
ting effect of the stripes). They are sometimes worn 
on the bias, but they are then apt to give the figure a 
one-sided appearance, a twisting corkscrew effect being 
produced. They are especially suitable for short stout 
people when arranged vertically, though in extreme 
cases it is always best to avoid very prominent patterns : 
stripe in such a case should be dark and neat. 

2ijj&2& KG. 



Checks add width to the figure, without increasing 
the height : they also show up the slightest difference 
in the sides, by cutting the figure up in squares. Pro- 
minently checked goods are only suitable for very fine 
types of figure, though small and neat checks may be 
used by the ordinary run of people without disadvan- 
tage, as owing to the distance from the onlookers eye, 
the effect of the neat check would be the same as a self 
pattern. In all cases of doubt, select quiet neat pat- 
terns and on toned colours. A plain twill or bird's-eye 
check suits well nigh everyone, as also does black, 
whi'e, and grey. This brief glance at colour must 
suffice for this work, those who are desirous of studying 
it more deeply may get works especially devoted to its 
explanation. We now pass on to deal with 

Ornament. 

The five principles of ornamentation are as follows: 
repetition, alternation, symmetry, progression and con- 
fusion, and it is to one or other of these primary 
sources that all ornamentation may he traced, and in 
order to fully illustrate, we give diagrams of the various 
modes as applied to braiding designs, considering that 
the most suitable for the purpose, though any other 
style of trimming may be subjected to the same laws. 
Let us briefly glance at 

Repetition. Diagram 130. Plate 46. 

This is the simplest method of decoration, hut at the 
same time it is one of the best. It is the method 
nature uses more than any other. Every thing that 
appeals to our senses acquires an astonishing power by 
repetition, and so with the style of braiding illustrated. 
A single eye of braid would be hardly noticable, but the 
repetition adds force, and shows at once the design has 
all the elements of beauty, viz., unity, order and pro- 
portion. Aichitecture, sculpture, painting, music, 
literature and poetry, are all embellished by repetition, 
indeed, there is no principle which appears more fre- 
quently either in the works of man or the works of 
nature. Consonance is the secondary element of repe- 
tition, by it we mean the repetition of idea rather than 
the actual reproduction. Take for instance the flaps 
on a Reefer or Lounge : they are made in consonance 
with the front, that is, if the front is rounded away, 
the flap is done ditto, and so on : this will explain 
what we mean hv consonance. 



Alternation & Contrast. Dia. 131. Plate 48. 

Variety is one of the great laws of the universe, and 
alternation is a blending of variety and repetition 
This will be °athered from a reference to diagram 131 




where the braiding alternates, first forming a crow's 
toe and then a simple eye. It is the succession of two 
different objects or forms recurring regularly in turn. 
There can be no alternation without repetition, but 
there can be repetition without alternation. Day and 
night are admirable illustrations of this principle. 
Contrast is the highest degree of alternation, it gives 
character and go to the part it is applied to, and if used 
aright, strengthens the unity of the subject, by empha- 
sizing its various parts, and bringing much within 
range that would otherwise have been lost sight of. 

Symmetry and Radiation. 

Diagrams 132 and 133. Plate 46. 

The human body is symmetrical. When we stand 
face to face with a human being, his body appears to 
be composed of two halves united in the centre, and 
these two parts, without being identical, correspond in 
such a manner that the right side, if folded over on the 
left, would exactly cover it. This repetition in reverse 
is what is called symmetry, though the original mean- 
ing of the word signified what we now understand by 
proportion. Diagram 132 is a capital illustration of 
symmetrical braiding, and is a copy of a military de- 
sign for a cuff. Radiation is a form of symmetry in 
which all its parts are alike ; that is, suppose a com- 
plete circle was formed of designs as illustrated on dia- 
gram 133, it could be folded over any way, and would 
come exactly on the top of a similar design. Doubtless 
our readers will remember how popular this method of 
trimming ladies' bodices round the scye was a very 
short time since. 

Progression and Gradation. 
Diagram 134. Plate 46. 

Perspective is a highly attractive example of progres- 
sion. Progression is a gradual leading up to a point 
where a climax is reached, which appears far more 
beautiful than it would without the preparation of pro- 
gression. Diagram 134 is an example of progression, 
and so is diagram 132, the ornament at the base grad- 
ually increase till the knot is reached. Progression and 
gradation are not quite the same. Progression may be 
irregular, gradation is never so. The numbers 1 , 3, 5 
7, !), illustrate progression, but they have no resem- 
blance to 2, 4, 8, Ml, 32, bhe latter is a regular succes- 
sion of changes, the former a series of shades. 



Confusion and Complication. 

These are not so often used in tailoring, still we do 
occasionally see garments braided without any apparent 
design — a sort of higgledy-piggledy arrangement, but 
in the midst of this disorder, these must be order intro- 
duced, if it is to become ornament : thus the outline of 
the braiding must be clearly defined, either by a border 
limiting its outline. In nature we frequently find a 
fine disorder which produces a beautiful effect, but the 
charm which nature throws over her works by careless 
foliage of trees, the dasies in the field, the stars in the 
heavens, cannot be reproduced in costume. Nature's 
fields are so wide that we can only take in a portion at 
one view. Doubtless if we could take in the whole of 
the universe, it is quite possible we should find some 
features of balance introducing order in the same way 
that we do in the minor works of nature. 

Much more might be written on this subject, but 
this must suffice. We have briefly touched on the 
principal features, and if we have not gone into these 
matters as fully as some of our readers would desire, 
we must plead the impossibility of treating every phase 
of this vast subject of ladies' tailoring within the 
limits of one volume. 

Conclusion. 

Ere we lay aside our pen, we will only state by 
way of conclusion, that we have aimed at the pro- 
duction of a work that should supply the young cutter 
with all he may require to fit him for the post of a 
ladies' tailor. Such has been our aim, our readers 
will judge whether we have succeeded in carrying out 
that aim to a practical issue. We desire to instruct, to 
improve, to encourage, and it may be that even in the 
defects of our work, others may take courage and 
persevere midst adverse circumstances and innumerable 
difficulties till a successful issue results. 

It is in this frame of mind, acknowledging its defects, 
regretting its imperfections, that we say, as we look 
upon our finished work, we feel proud of it. We have 
done our best ; neither time nor trouble has been 
spared : and we have little doubt that the trade will 
receive it and use it according to its merits, of which 
others will be the best judge, rather than 

THE AUTHOR. 




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I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I T I I I 1 I I I I I I I 




LM l 



1892-3. 



In response to many enquiries continually reaching us, 
from young men desirous of improving their position in 
the world of tailoring, we find it desirable to state briefly 
in the form of a prospectus, not only the course it is 
necessary to pursue, that these young men may attain 
the object of their ambition ; but also to impart a little 
information and sound advice which may guide them as 
to the best way to go about it. Most young men, of an 
intelligent and aspiring turn of mind, when they have 
acquired a fair knowledge of practical tailoring, look with 
longing eyes towards the Shears and the Cutting Board, 
and picture to themselves a time when they hope to be 
foremen, to wield the larger implements with skill and 
dexterity. They are conversant with the history of 
many men who started in the humblest circumstances, 
who achieved marked success, and became a credit to 
their calling. They think of Andrew Johnson, the poor 
fatherless lad, who while still in his teens, supported his 
mother by his skilful use of the needle and the venerable 
goose, and who eventually became President of the 
United States — a distinguished statesman as well as 
tailor. Well, doubtless young men can say to them- 
selves and act on the belief that " what man has done, 
man can do ; but to do so, young men must set them- 
selves to be masters of their business in all its branches. 
They must be like the needle, whatever they undertake 
they must go through with it Their first ambition 
must be, to master the practical problems in connection 
with the business. We say practical problems ; for not a 
few men waste both their time and energies on theories and 
controversies, which profit neither themselves nor anyone 



else. The practical outcome of this stage of the young 
man's ambition must be his finding himself a successful 
cutter. Coming now more directly to the point, we shall 
enquire briefly as to the time 

When to learn Cutting. 

Circumstances so alter cases, that it would be impos- 
sible to give one definite, unqualified reply to this ques- 
tion. As we look back over twenty five years, and the 
long line of students who have passed through our Cut- 
ting Academy more in number doubtless than have 
attended any similar Academy in Europe — we have re- 
ceived Students of every age, from 15 to 50 years, and of 
pretty well every variety of capacity and circums'ances. 
But recently we received a youth of 15, son of a master 
tailor in the City desirous of getting his son an early 
and complete education in the Art of Cutting. He came 
for a term of three months, which was afterwards extend- 
ed to four months. Being an intelligent and devoted 
lad, desirous of acquiring the Art, he not only acquired 
the systems with their varied applications to dispropor- 
tionate figures and different styles of garment, but also 
gave special attention to the daily lectures — the subjects 
of which for the ensuing season will be found further on 
in this prospectus — and took notes to impress the dif- 
ferent points upon his mind. Shortly after leaving the 
Academy he secured a situation in a middle class trade, 
which he kepr, with credit to himself, and profit to his 
employer. This we admit is a somewhat exceptional 
case. We relate it to show what can be done. 



/ 



THE TAILOR AND CUTTER 



Une more case occurs to mind, illustrating what we 
may tuna " the other end." We recall the form of a 
Student, whose hairs were already streaked with silver, 
and whose prime was certainly on the wane, if not past. 
His history none of the Students knew, except one he 
took into his confidence more than the others. He had 
been in business, but as the result of an unfortunate 
train of circumstances had failed, thus forming a crisis 
in his career. The very little capital he could command, 
he resolved to invest in a series of perfecting lessons or 
brush up at the Tailor and Cutter Academy. He attend- 
ed to all the routine of instruction as one who feels he is 
playing his last card, and succeeded in fitting himself for 
the cutting room of a respectable trade ; so that we could 
with confidence recommend him to a good provincial 
trade as cutter, where he is now receiving £3 3s. a week, 
as well as satisfying his employers. Though we do have 
such cases, the majority of our Students are young 
men, who have for the most part acquired a knowledge 
of practical tailoring — though numbers come who have 
not even this acquirement ; and by a longer stay and 
dilligent application, not a few of these have distinguish- 
ed themselves as cutters. 

Do our Students succeed ? 

Those who are determined, almost invariably do so. 
But as we have no wish to deceive any one — to succeed 
as a cutter, a young man must determine to do so. The 
advantages for young men acquiring the Cutting in these 
days are greater than they ever, were, but then compe- 
tition is also greater. So that while success is open to 
all, it can only be attained by special effort. When a 
determined effort is made by our Students, success 
almost invariably follows, as a matter of course. From 
the nearest estimate we can make, fully nine-tenths of 
our Students get situations and keep them. We select a 
few of the recent letters we have received from late Stu- 
dents, which we give at the eud of this prospectus ; these 
are only specimens out of a very large bundle. 

The time of year for Students. 

We have two seasons in the year when the bulk of 
our Students pass through our Academy. The one sea- 
son begins in January and the other in July ; and though 
no Student is accepted unless we have a place for him, 
still, when it is equally convenient, Students will do well 
to come between the seasons. As we keep a regular 
staff of competent teachers all the year round, and as 
our method of teaching combines both individual and 
class teaching, Students can begin their studies at any 
time, for as regards the rudiments, each is treated indi- 
vidually, and on his own merits, so that his progress is 
simply at the rate at which he can acquire tuition. 

Where to Learn ? 

Well, after the care and attention we have devoted to 
the development of our Academy arrangements and course 
of study, as set forth in this prospectus, we naturally and 
confidently say : Nowhere can the Art of Cutting be> 
taught so thoroughly and practically as at the Tailor and 
( 'niter Academy. There are several ways of acquiring 
the Cutting. Some do so by self-tuition, and in our 
" Students Instructor and Guide," full detailed instruc- 
tion are given as to how this can be done. Easy les- 
sons art' given to start with, and the necessary works 
are given in their order, for study. This excellent work, 
which ought to he in the hand? of every intending Stu- 



dent, whether they intend acquiring the Art at our Aca- 
demy or not, is supplied at our Office, at the nominal 
charge of One Shilling. To acquire the Art by self- 
tuition, however, requires more determined application 
than the bulk of young men will be found able to sum- 
mon. Besides, so many difficulties arise in tuition 
which can only be met verbally as they arise. Still, it 
is possible to acquire the Art of Cutting by self-tuition. 

Intending Students, however, must judge for themselves 
as to the course they will pursue in acquiring the Art of 
Cutting. Our business in this prospectus is to point out 
the advantages accruing from a course of tuition at the 
Tailor and Cutter Academy. No effort on our part is re- 
quired to bring Students to our Academy, as nearly all 
come through the recommendation of old Students. We 
only ask intending Students to compare the course of 
tuition and advantages of the Tailor and Cutter Academy, 
and the success of our Students as compared with other 
Cutting Schools. 

It is, or ought to be, the merest truism to state, that 
mere systems or theoretic teaching cannot make a student 
competent for success at the Cutting Board, hence the 
very large infusion of the practical element in out 
teaching. Defects in fitting, their causes and remedies 
are fully discussed and practically illustrated. Our lec- 
tures embrace the Art of Trying On, with practical 
illustrations. The Use and Abuse of Model Patterns 
are treated in a series of lectures. Practical illustrations 
are also given in Economy in Cutting — an important 
branch of cutting not sufficiently studied. Business 
principles and qualifications also form the subjects of 
several leetures ; and indeed — as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing syllabus — the whole groundwork of an artistic, 
scientific, and commercial education, covering the whole 
t uloring trade, is fully illustrated and explained. 

Our Cutting Rooms are light, airy, and lofty, while 
every convenience necessary for health and comfort have 
been studied. We will now suppose a Student desirous 
of coming to our Academy to acquire the Art of Cutting ; 
his first enquiry will be : 

Cost of Tuition, Lodging, &c. 

Though not in every case, still in many cases, the 
first question will be one of finance. Where this is a 
consideration, economy must be studied. There is the 
railway fare — if the Student is out of London — whatever 
that may be. A month's tuition will be five pounds, 
which is payable upon entering upon his studies. Then 
there is board and lodging. Our accommodation for 
Students is in the suburbs. Our secretary and chief 
assistant has, with his wife, the charge of our lodging 
department. 7/- a week was the old charge for lodging, 
but as the railway fare amounts to 2/- a week, going to and 
fro to the office, this has been deducted from the lodging, so 
that the lodging is 5/-, which with the railway fare is 7/-. 
As these are matters which will doubtless interest many 
intending students, we may add further, that Students 
usually have breakfast and tea at our Students' apart- 
ments and Sunday's dinner, and dine on weekdays at 
one of the convenient places not far from the office. The 
whole can be done, including washing, for £1 a week. 
While this provides every necessary, it also involves 
economy. It includes nothing for getting about sight- 
seeing. For others who go in for a longer period of 
tuition, and to whom a pound or two is no very special 
object, no difficulty can be experienced in arranging all 
such matters. 



CUTTING ACADEMY. 



Procedure in the Academy. 

The first thing when a Student arrives, is to introduce 
him to the head teacher. If he knows nothing of mark- 
ing or cutting, his first lesson will be in holding and 
using the chalk. Then a system of forepart or trou- 
sers is drawn out before him and explained. He rubs it 
out, and trys to reproduce it, following a draught on 
drawing paper on the wall. To the uninitiated this is 
perhaps the most difficult part of the course ; but a little 
practice in finding points and draughting, and each suc- 
ceeding lesson becomes easier and easier. We find 
generally the first few days are the most trying. With 
a number of Students around him, whose progress is in 
all the different stages of development— some draughting 
out what appears the most complicated problems with 
ease — he begins to fear that he will never master cutting, 
and several in the course of our experience, have at this 
stage come and told us so. In a day or two more, how- 
ever, he begins to know both his fellow Students and 
their work more familiarly, and by and bye he becomes 
as confidant as any in the room. 

A drawing book is given to each Student in which to 
insert the systems to the £ or ^ scale, as he masters 
them, and it is desirable each Student should provide 
himself with a note book ; for besides taking notes of the 
lectures, so many hints on all points in cutting are im- 
parted in the course of a day, that much will be gained 
by the Student making note of these. It is in such 
points as these that the difference comes in between a 
dilligent Student and one who makes comparatively 
small progress. The hours of attendance are such as 
not to greatly tax the Student. From 10 to 1 o'clock, 
and from 2 to 5 o'clock. Then the occupation is varied, 
tbough of course the largest part of it is devoted to 
draughting and direct tuition. A conversational lecture is 
is usually given in the morning upon some feature in 
draughting, when generally some practical illustration 
is given of actual work in the cutting room — a gar- 
ment being either cut out, tried on or examined, or in 
other ways the practical work of the cutting room is 
illustrated ; the daily lecture when all (he Students 
meet, occupies from 4 to 5 o'clock. One afternoon and 
evening a week during the season, after 4 o'clock, is 
devoted to social entertainment. The Students form 
themselves into a debating society, when some question, 
more or less directly connected with the trade is dis- 
cussed*, Mr. Williamson usually presiding. Tea is aft< r- 
wards provided, and the evening generally finishes with 
a lantern slide entertainment, Mr. Williamson having 
invented a process by which full size figures are thrown 
upon the screen to illustrate the different styles of gar- 
ments. These social evenings have introduced quite a 
new tone in our Academy, the Students being much 
more social and friendly : and as it pretty well goes with- 
out saying, that all Students who come to our Academy, 
are sober, steady and respectable, the friendship formed 
with each other, and the little outings arranged, keep 
them from the many temptations to be found in Lon- 
don. Saturday afternoon excursions, up or down the 
river, are frequently arranged for during the season. 
Many letters we receive from old Students record pleas- 



ing memories of the happy days they spent at our 
Academy, and of the home feeling and comfort expe- 
rienced at the Students' apartments. 

The following is our New Syllabus of the Afternoon 
Lectures to be delivered during the ensuing season. 
These are not necessarily delivered in rotation, the 
teachers using their discretion as to the lectures to te 
delivered each week The New List of Subjects for the 
week's Lecture is hung up in the Cutting Rooms every 
Monday morning. The List of Garments taught will be 
found in the complete Syllabus, sent on receipt of stamp 
for postage. 

Special Cases. 

In addition to the ordinary tuition for a term varying 
from one month upwards, we receive a large number of 
cutters in daily practice, who require a little coaching up 
in special garments. One wants to know how to cut 
military trousers, another has a difficulty with his coats, 
a third comes up to acquire the Art of Cutting Ladies' 
Garments ; but no matter what they wish to acquire, we 
are prepared to coach them up. Many a young man 
gets a week, or some on'y a day, off, for an excursion 
trip, and instead of spending it exclusively in holiday, he 
comes to the Tailor and Cutter Office, and goes back to 
his business with fresh ideas and new energy. The 
charge for this is one day 1 guinea, three days H guineas, 
one week 2 guineas, or a fornight 3 guineas. 

Do we receive Lady Students ? 

Yes ! w r e have a room specially set apart for our Lady 
Students, as wall be seen by tho Special Prospectus for 
Lady Students which follows. 

Cutters wishing a Diploma. 

Cutters desirous of being examined with the view of 
gaining a Diploma, are admitted on the usual terms for 
special cases, viz., 3 days, 1\ guineas ; they may obtain 
a specimen list of questions they will have to answer, 
by forwarding a stamp to the Tailor ami Cutter Office. 
In addition to writing answers to similar questions (not 
the ones sent) they will undergo a personal examination 
and be required to measure for a suit and cut it out, as 
well as any ether special task the examiners may deem 
necessary, so as to thoroughly test their ability, and the 
value of the Diploma will be according to the result of 
the examination. 

It is not necessary the cutter desirous of being ex- 
amined should cut by the Tailor and Cutter Systems. 
Any system that produces a satisfactory result is all 
that is needed. 

Concessions to Students. 

Students coming for one month and upwards have 
the following concession.? made to them. 

(a) The right to purchase any of our published 
works at luilt price, with the exception of the bouna 
volume of the Tailor and (hitter and the Ladies 1 Tai- 
lor, which are supplied at a discount of 9-5 per cent. 



THE FEES ARE AS FOLLOWS: 
Three Months £12 10s.; Two Months, £10 Six Weeks, £7 10s.: and One Month, £5. 



THE TAILOR AND CUTTER ACADEMY. 



■ — ■♦- 

Cutting by Model Patterns. 

Lecture 1. Introduction. — What is a Model Pat- 
tern ? How to use thein, &c, &c. 

Lecture 2. Disproportion. — Stooping, Erect, Long 
and Short Necks, Long and Short Bodies. Special 
features to be observed, &c. 

Lecture 3. Disproportion. — Corpulency, Small 
Waists, Humpbacks, Pigeon Breasts, Deformities 
generally. 

Lecture 4. Style. — Frock, Dress, and Morning Coats. 

Lecture 5. Style.— Lounges, Reefers and Parrol 
Jackets. 

Lecture 6. Style. — Overcoats, Capes, Hoods, Inver- 
ness Capes, Scarborough, the Raglan Cloak, &c 

Lecture 7. Liveries. — General features, the Coach- 
man's Frock, Footman's Coatee, the Groom's Frock, 
Page's Jacket, &c. 

Lecture 8. Liveries. — Overcoats for all classess. Full 
Dress Liveries, &c. 

Lecture 9. Military Garments. — The Tunic, the 
Patrol Jacket, the Doublet, the Shell Jacket, the 
Overcoat. 

Lecture 10. Naval Garments. — The Jack Ta^ the 
Cadet, Midshipmans' Jacket, Captain's Full Dress 
Coat, &c, &c. 

Lecture 11. Clerical Garments. — Frock, Cassock, 
Cassock Vest, Full Dress Coat, &c, &c. 

Lecture 12. Hosiery. — Dressing Gowns, Shirts, Py- 
jamas, &c, &c. 

Lecture 13. Vests in all their varieties. 

This completes the series of Lectures on Cutting by 
Model Patterns. 

Practical Cutting and Subjects connected 
with the Cutting Room. 

Lecture 14.— The principles of Trouser Cutting. 

Lecture 15. — The Art of Trying-on. 

Lecture 16.— The principles of Coat Cutting. 

Lecture 17.- — Straightness and Crookedness, what it is 
and what it is not. 

Lecture 18. — Art in Relation to Tailoring, Form, &c. 

Lecture 19. — ditto. Colour. 

Lecture 20. — ditto. Ornament. 

Lecture 21 .-- Graduated Tapes, their Use and Abuse. 

Lecture 22. —How to Design and Make a Costume 
Skirt. 

Lecture 23. — Collars and Lapels in all their varieties. 

Lecture 24. — Machines used by Tailors. 

Lecture 25, — Anatomy as a basis to formulate Systems. 

Lecture 26. — Fidgetty and Unreasonable Custom- 
ers, a Record of Cutting Room Experience. 

Lecture 27. — Alterations, their causes, how to avoid 
and how to cure them. 

Lecture 28. — Do. do. do. 

Lecture 29. — Do. do. do. 

Lecture 30. — Do. do. do. 

All the above are fully illustrated liy specially prepared. 
Diagrams and Figures, and they each deal directly 
with practical cutting. By way of variety, one or 
two of the following are given weekly : 

Lecture 31 , — -The Management of Workmen, 

Lecture 32. — The ninth part of a Man. 

Lecture 33. — The Routine of the Cutting Room. 

Lecture 34. — The Duties of a Trimmer. 

Lecture 85. — The greatest evils in the Trade. 



Lecture 36. — The Ideal Cutter or Cutter of the Future. 

Lecture 37. — The Cutter's Duty. 

Lecture 38. — Life, Its Aims, Secrets of Success, 
Habits, Duties and Privileges. 

Lecture 39. — Success in Life, Health, Personal Hap- 
piness, Usefulness. 

Lecture 40. — Will it Pay ? Features of Profit and 
Loss. 

Lecture 41. — Fiction and Fact, or the False and the 
True. 

Lecture 42. — Blunders, their Causes, How to Avoid 
them, &c. 

Lecture 43. — Now and Then, or the Past, the Present 
and the Future. 

Business Lectures. 

Lecture 44. Principles of Business.— Capital, Ex- 
pense, Rise and fall in proportion to the amount of 
turnover, Profits reckoned on the returns instead of 
the original outlay. 

Lecture 45. Opening- a New Business. — Various 
methods pursued, Buying an old connection, Usual 
terms, Different classes of tailoring to be studied. 

Lecture 46. How to get Customers. — Advertisements 
— useful and useless, Travellers developing business, &c 

Lecture 47. Shop Window Dressing. — Light, Ar- 
rangement of colours and materials, How to design a 
display, Specialities, &c. 

Lecture 48. Money". — Fluctuation in its value, Why is 
gold the standard, Money in circulation simply as 
token. 

Lecture 49. Credit. — Its use and abuse, Definitions of 
credit, A means of increasing business, prices of goods 
affected more by credit than by money, Bills of ex- 
change, promissory notes. 

Lecture 50. Bookkeeping for Tailors. — Garment 
ticket books, Day book, Ledger, Wages book. 

Lecture 51. Failures in Business. — Injudicious buy- 
ing, Fluctuations in prices, Extravagance, Carelessness. 

Lecture 52. Economy in Business. — System, Buying, 
Saving, Discounts, &c. 

Lecture 53. Waste. — Competition, Overstocking the 
market. 

Lecture 54. Success in Business. — Its dependance on 
method and adaptation to meet the necessities of the 
times. 

Lecture 55. Buying and Selling. — Time to buy, 
dated forward, Despatching patterns to customers, Bad 
debts, &c. 

Lecture 56. "Carlyle " on " Tailors and Tailoring." 

Lecture 57. Health. — The effects of woollen, cotton, 
and linen, Effects of different colours, Effects of dyes 
on various materials. 

Subjects for Debate. 

The following is a List of Debatable Subjects, one of 
which is introduced about once a week. 

Is Trying-on a necessity ? 

Is a time log practicable for Town and village alike ? 

Is the eight hours working day applicable to the Tai 
loring Trade ? 

Block Pattern or System Cutting, which is the most 
Successful in Practice ? 

Should all workmen be paid alike ? 

Does out or indoor working advance the best interests 
of the Tailoring Trade ? 

Is it necessary for a cutter to be a practical tailor ? 

Is it right for an employee to carry en the same kird 
of business as his employer during his spare hours ? 

Others will be introduced during the season, 



*?> 



.,^^^^^»fe^ 



•w 











A Sketch of Our Cutting Room. 



BY A RECENT STUDENT. 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ! I I I 



I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



I I I I I I I I I I I ' 



In issuing the New Prospectus of our Cutting Academy, our aim is to convey as 
vividly as possible to intending Students, what it is they enter upon and seek to 
accomplish, what we undertake to do for our Students, together with the daily routine 
of our Academy. A recent Student of a literary turn of mind, after completing his 
course of tuition, wrote out a little history of his observations and experience while at 
our Academy ; and as this was shown to us just as we were on the eve of drawing up a 
New Prospectus, we thought we could not do better than allow our late Student's record 
to accompany it, for the enlightenment of young men and others who are anticipating 

a Course of Lessons at our Office. 



HOW I BECAME A CUTTER. 

BY A MASTER TAILOR'S SON. 

We, that is, my father, mother, and myself, were 
sitting round the fire one evening in December last year, 
when the conversation turned upon my future ; and as 
I look back on that family group in my father's home, I 
cannot help thinking that this had formed the subject 
of mauy conversations between my parents, when I had 
little thought on the matter. 

"John," said my father, "it seems to me the time 
has arrived when you must strike out for yourself ; you 
have had as good a training in the practical part of the 
tailoring business, as I can give you, and I think it will 
be well for you now to go into the scientific, and so com- 
plete your education as a tailor." 



This took me somewhat by surprise. I had often 
thought of and very much desired to become a Cutter ; 
I had studied the trade literature, and my imagination 
and ambition had even painted a scene, where I was the 
leading cutter in a high class tailoring trade ; and now 
that my father suggested the first step in this direction, 
I felt a flush come over my face, as I replied, " Very 
good, father, I shall always try to do as you wish me ; 
but I don't quite understand what you mean." " How 
should you like to spend three months at the Tailor and 
Cutter Academy ?" asked my father; bringing visions 
to my mind of numbers of young men like myself, draft- 
ing, cutting out, attending lectures, and so forth, so that 
I was eager and ready. In an instant my enthusiasm 
was aroused, and I replied, " Oh ! that would be splendid 
father, I should like it immensely." After a little while 



A SKETCH OF OUE CUTTING ROOM. 



it was decided I should write for a prospectus, calculate 
what would be the probable cost, and make the neces- 
sary arrangements £»r me to start with the new year. 
How eagerly I watched for the postmen to bring that 
prospectus, how carefully I read every line, how I 
longed for the time to come when I should bid adieu to 
my native town and begin my stay in the great city. 

Arrangements were finally made, and at last I bade 
adieu to my mother, father, and sisters, and on Monday, 
January 5th, 1891, I started for the Tailors' School of 
Art, there to take up my abode for a three months' 
term. How shall I describe my feelings as the train 
steamed out of the station ; there was my mother with 
a whole world of yearning anxiety for her boy ; and I 
am bound to confess to a slight choking sensation as I 
watched the familiar places where my boyhood days 
had been spent, fade away one by one. I felt that at 
last I was starting alone to fight the battle of life. Many 
were the vague fears that entered my head. Should I 
like it after all ? Should I miss my home ? Should I 
feel very lonely ? These and a whole host of other 
things passed through my mind, as the train steamed 
away past village and town and hamlet, till at last it 
reached the great city, and I found myself on the plat- 
form of Euston Station, looking out for my luggage. 
" Take a cab and go straight to the Tailor and Cutter 
Office," had been my father's instructions, and this I at 
once proceeded to do. This journey was soon over, and 
alighting at the Tailor and Cutter Office, I found a fine, 
massive building, standing out in marked distinction to 
the surroundings. Entering, I enquired for Mr. Wil- 
liamson, and after a little while was ushered into that 
gentleman's presence. He greeted me cordially, and 
entered into a little conversation with me as to what 
were my aims and what I hoped to do. I explained this 
to him as far as possible ; gave him my father's cheque 
for £12 10s., the amount charged for three months' 
tuition, received my receipt, and was then introduced to 
the head teacher. He met me with a cordial shake of 
the hand, and I soon began to feel a little at home ; he 
conducted me into the cutting room, showed me where 
to hang my coat and hat, arraDged for my luggage to be 
put in a place of safety, and then I started on 

My First Lesson. 

" We generally start on trousers," said my teacher, 
" they are the garment easiest learnt, having the fewest 
parts to remember." Then he showed me how to 
measure, taking first the leg, then the side, waist, seat, 
knee, and bottom. I remember the importance he 
attached to correct measurement, and how very neces- 
sary it was to do my best to grasp my customer's wishes. 
"For instance," said he, "if a customer tells you he 
wants an easy-fitting pair of trousers, that he can stoop 
about in, you must note that, and when cutting, make 
arrangements accordingly, or you will get them back for 
alteration. Trousers that fit close and smart will give 
one gent every satisfaction but will be a misfit altogether 
for another ; so that whilst we believe the system we 
adopt to be the very best known, yet you must look 
upon it as merely a means to an end, and that end is to 
produce a garment to meet your customer's wishes. But 
of this more presently," he said ; and then proceeded to 
show me the topsides of a pair of close-fitting trousers, 
explaining point by point as he proceeded ; and then, 
going over it again, he left me to draw the various 
points, curves or angles by myself. " Now," said he, 
"here is a tape, square, chalk, and curved stick; and as 
you get into difficulties I shall be pleased to help you ;" 
and so in this kindly way I was encouraged at the start. 

I succeeded beyond my expectations, and was soon 
passed on to the undersides, and ere the day had passed 
away, I had grasped the trousers system, and drafted 
it out to different measures, having taken the mea- 
sures of a fellow student, and completed the whole 
routine in a practical manner. Ere the day was over, 
I had begun to feel at home ; the kindly manner of the 
teachers, and the evident sociability of the older Stu- 



dents, did much to take away the strange surroundings : 
and as day after day passed away 

The Cutting Rooms 

Became quite familiar, and as I write this many a mile 
away from them, I can picture the whole thing distinctly. 
There are two large rooms, and one smaller one, the 
latter being reserved for Lady Students, so I need not 
describe that. The large rooms are arranged with three 
long tables in each ; each table being capable of accom- 
modating 6 or 8 Students, and several times during my 
stay they were all in use. The number of young men 
who passed through the Academy astonished me. A 
fine lot of young fellows they were too : studious, steady, 
intelligent, and respectable as you could wish for, and 
be it said to the credit of the Tailor and Cutter manage- 
ment, I did not hear one word of complaint during the 
whole of my stay ; but on the contrary astfar as I know, 
every body was satisfied, and the majori y entered in a 
book, written testimony to that effect ere they left. 
But this is by the way. To return to the rooms, they 
are well lighted and ventilated ; each room has five 
large windows, there is a lavatory fitted up for the 
Student's use, and the sanitary arrangements are under 
the supervision of an engineer kept on the premises to 
look after such matters. Everything was done to make 
the rooms comfortable and healthy. 

The Lectures 

Are usually given in the upper room, and although 
chairs are provided for the Students on these occasions, 
they mostly prefer to sit on the table facing the 
Lecturer. The lectures during my stay were very 
varied, the practical, scientific, artistic and business 
phases of tailoring being all thoroughly dealt with, 
whilst other subjects which offered two sides were 
clearly brought out by the two principal teachers in the 
debates, and very frequently the Students would follow 
them up with great zest. W ell I remember the debate : 
" Is it necessary for a cutter to be a practical tailor in 
order to produce the best results ? " How the various 
Students discussed the matter with great eagerness, 
each advocating the side which agreed with their own 
experience. The lectures were to my mind one of the 
most instructive methods of teaching adopted at the 
Academy ; they were fully illustrated by full size Dia- 
grams and Charts — which must have taken a very long 
time to prepare, for many of them are beautifully ex- 
ecuted. As I look over my note book, which was my 
constant companion, I find a very large portion of it 
filled with notes of the various lectures ; and now that 
I am in actual practice I find them of the greatest use 
to me when in a difficulty. The Lectures and Debates 
were often thoroughly talked over at 

The Students' Home, 

Where we exercised the duties of judge and jury on the 
lecture and lecturer. Happy days they were ; how 
often I look back upon them now, and wish to live them 
over again. On leaving the Academy the first evening, 
I was escorted by a fellow-student to Waterloo, which is 
about ten minutes' walk from the office, from where we 
took train to Clapham Junction, and there soon found 
myself in a most comfortable home, which belongs to 
the Academy, where the Students' comforts are studied 
in every particular, and the charges are strictly mode- 
rate. I found great advantage from being associated 
with the other Students after business hours ; they were 
able to help me in many little difficulties with home 
work, whilst the library in the Students' sitting room 
was a great advantage. I have already referred to 

My Fellow-Students, 

But as I write about the lodging there are many faces 
which I shall always remember. In one or two cases I 
have formed friendships which will last possibly through 



A SKETCH OF OUR CUTTING ROOM. 



life, and I believe others did the same. This was 
only natural in such a number of young men all having 
the same object in view, especially when their views on 
religious, social, or political subjects were much in com- 
mon. There were very few of them who went in for 
politics, but many a discussion took place on religion 
and temperance ; and very instructive they frequently 
were, too, carried on as they usually were in the best of 
humours whilst we were busy with our drawing books, 
drafting models, &c. Young men from all parts of 
Great Britain were there, Welshmen, Irishmen, Scotch- 
men, Yorkshiremen ; and not only from our own little 
island, but there was a Canadian, an American, a New 
Zealander, an Australian ; and I heard from the secre- 
tary it was no unusual occurrence for them to have 6 or 
7 different nationalities represented there at the same 
time, Russians, Frenchmen, Germans, Swedes and Jews 
often forming part of the company. Sometimes they 
could speak English, sometimes they could not and it 
was astonishing how well they could be taught without 
the use of the tongue. This reminds me that whilst I 
was there, we had a deaf and dumb fellow student ; and 
he really got on well, for though only there for a month, 
yet he thoroughly mastered Coats, Vests, and Trousers, 
and successfully passed his examination. I soon felt at 
home with them all, for they were jolly fellows and 



At the end of a month 

I began to feel myself an old stager, for I had seen 
many come and go in that time. Some cutters in 
actual practice would get a week's holiday, and come up 
to learn a little about their weak points ; with some it 
was breeches, with others it was ladies', and I often 
envied the speed with which they acquired the know- 
ledge in their special branch they had come up to study. 
I had, as I have stated, come for three months, and the 
plan followed with long term Students, is to thoroughly 
ground them in each garment as they proceed, so that I 
had not advanced very far at this time, though there 
is many a man holding a cutter's position, that knows 
no more than I did at that time, for I had thoroughly 
mastered the cutting of Trousers, Breeches, Gaiters, 
• ests, Lounges, Morning and Frock Coats, Overcoats, 
dec., and had begun the study of disproportion. I knew 
how to provide for stooping and erect figures, long and 
short necks, and was dealing with hump backs, &c, when 

A practical Illustration 



Was given on this very subject. One of the Students 
consented to have his body made up by padding, &c, 
to represent a very bad case of disproportion ; one of 
the teachers being deputed to do this, and the form he 
produced, was such that I think I should shudder to see 
enter my cutting room now. I will try to describe it ; 
There was a large hump on the right side, with a corres- 
ponding depression on the left, the right shoulder was at 
least 2 inches higher than the left, and though the chest 
was 36 yet the measure across was only 6f , that is 13| 
from arm to arm. The senior teacher then commenced 
operations. He took the measures, cat the pattern, 
marked it on the cloth, cut it out, basted it up, all the 
while explaining every detail as he proceeded and 
answering the hundred and one questions asked him as 
he went on. Sometimes I wondered at the patience 
and good humour shown by the teachers, and I can only 
say they are indeed men well qualified for their posi- 
tion. The one special note I made on the subject of 
deformities was : " Don't try to exactly fit, but to hide 
the deformity." I have many others, but this was the 
special teaching on that occasion, and I must say the 
result of the try on was a great success. About this 
time there were several leaving, their terms of tuition 
having expired, and they asked to be taken over the 
premises, so I joined them in their 



Tour of Inspection. 

We started at the basement, and as we got to this we 
could see the engine puffing away, and very quickly we 
were amidst the noise and din of four large printing 
machines, all busy at work. One was printing Fashion 
Plates, another was printing a portion of a New Work 
in course of prepartion, and the other two were occupied 
with the Tailor aud Cutter and the Ladies' Tailor. In 
the corner of one of the large printing rooms was the 
guilotine, which cuts and trims the edges of the journals, 
&c, before they are sent out. After watching with 
interest the various processes in operation in the base- 
ment, we came up to the ground floor ; here the Clerk's 
Office is situated, together with the Secretary's Room, a 
stock room and the shop. Around the walls of the lat- 
ter large cupboards are fitted up, these are fitted with 
pigeon-holes, which are fitted with the various kinds of 
Model Patterns supplied. In a glass case were displayed 
samples of Shears, Scissors, Squares, &c, and in another 
the various works on cutting published by the company. 
On the walls were hung specimens of Fashion Plates, 
including Military, Naval and Livery Plates ; and I 
could not help thinking how nicely they would show off 
the walls of any cutting room. We then ascended to 
the Cutting Rooms on the first floor, which I have 
already described ; by the side of this is placed the 
Editor's Room, which forms a centre of the establish- 
ment, and from whence instructions for each depart- 
ment emanate. Above this is a room I hear the com- 
pany are specially fitting up for Ladies, in addition to a 
small room on the first floor. By the side of this is 
another Stock Room, where piles of Books, Plates, Trou- 
ser Stretchers, &c, were to be seen. Back we came 
through the Lavatory, into the upstairs Cutting Room, 
and then at the back of this we were shown the Model 
Pattern Cutting Room, where the world-famed Models 
are ranged round the walls, and from which copies are 
cut by the score. It was very interesting to see the 
knife at work in the hands of a skilled cutter, and 
what struck me. most was the accuracy and care with 
which every detail was attended to, in order to make 
these model patterns models indeed. On the third and 
top floor we found the compositors busy with their formes 
and type. There we were shown the engraved blocks 
of diagrams, the method by which they were produced 
was explained, and so on till a good quarter of an hour 
had been spent in a most instructive manner. To the 
right of the compositors room we were ushered into the 
folding room, where we found four young ladies, busy 
at work, folding the journals ; how nimbly their hands 
manipulated the sheets, how quickly and accurately it 
was all done ; truly practice makes perfect. 

Ere descending the stairs we were shown the lift, by 
which all the heavy forms of type, &c, are transported 
from the compositors to the printers. This brought our 
tour of inspection to a close, a tour that demonstrated 
to me how necessary co-operative effort was to produce 
anything of benefit to the world at large, and I think 
there are few indeed but will readily acknowledge the 
Tailor and Cutter is a benefit to the tailoring community 
in particular, and through them to the world generally. 
I now began to think of serious 

Preparation for my Examination. 

I was supplied with a list of questions which seemed 
to me to embrace every phase of tailoring— practical, 
scientific, and artistic. I was told to study them all, to 
be capable of answering every one, though I should only 
get a small selection from them to answer in my exami- 
nation. Having got this list, I cut the sheets up so that 
each question was separate, and these I pasted in a 
twopenny exercise book, allowing some five or six lines 
to write my answer in. Having done this, I was ready 
to start. There is no key book from which to crib the 
answers from ; each has to be carefully studied out ; 
still I did not find them particularly difficult, though 
some of them were what I should call " tricky ques- 



A SKETCH OF OUR CUTTING ROOM. 



tions," and evidently put with the object of making the 
student ihink. I made rapid progress with these, for I 
always found the teachers both ready and willing to 
fully explain any question I asked then* about, though 
of course it was impossible for them to go through all 
the questions in this way. Occasionally the lecture 
would deal with the examination papers ; two I remem- 
ber especially : the one was " The features which con- 
tribute most towards success in a cutter's career," and 
the other was " The difficulties a cutter has to over- 
come." Between the examination papers and 

The Drawing Book, 

My evenings were fully occupied, and anyone who comes 
to the Tailor and Cutter Office as a Student must make 
up his mind for hard work if he wishes to succeed. I 
am very proud of my drawing book, and many a time 
have I shown it to my tailoring friends since I left the 
Academy, and as it contains diagrams of almost every 
kind of ladies' and gents' garment, all done with my 
own hands, it gives some idea of the comprehensive 
nature of the teaching given at the Tailor and Cutter 
Office. I find it most valuable as a book of reference, 
and I do not think money would tempt me to part with 
this practical memento of the many happy hours I spent 
at 93, Drury Lane. 

My time flew by, and I began to look hopefully for 
the end, not that I wanted it to come, but rather because 
I felt the progress I had made was genuine, and such as 
would enable me to take my stand behind the cutting 
board with confidence. I kept a weekly record of 

My Expenses, 

And I find the average to be 23/6 :;: , but this did not 
include anything for sight-seeing, for I carefully ab- 
stained from this, as my father had promised me plenty 
of this sort of thing at the end of my term, providing I 
passed successfully ; so I concentrated all my energies 
on this end, though I took many an interesting walk to 
Battersea Park or on Clapham Common, or even 
occasionally we went as far as Hyde Park, to feast our 
eyes on the beauties of nature and the beauties of high- 
class tailoring. My expenses consisted of lodging 5/-, 
travelling 2/6, washing 1/-, attendance 6d., and food, &c, 
14/6. Many reduced the latter amount considerably, 
but my parents instructed me to live comfortably but 
not luxuriously, and this was the advice I carried out, 
and I merely give these items as a guide to those who 
may be placed in similar conditions to myself. As the 
day of my 

* Many Students make 20/- a week meet their expenses. 



Examination 

Drew near I began to feel very nervous. I had been 
working so hard that I almost dreaded being put to the 
test ; for I had learnt enough to show me how much 
there was I did not know ; and it was this that made 
me nervous; and as I was ushered into the Editor's 
Room and took my seat at the examination table, my 
heart was thumping away at a very high rate, and my 
whole frame was trembling ; but this very soon passed 
away, for when I opened the sealed packet of questions 
and made a start, I found that my heart was so full 
of my subject that I forgot all else ; and the only 
thing I felt was a sincere desire to do the very best I 
could, and to answer the various questions in the fullest 
manner. 

It was a heavy day's work, but as the afternoon wore 
away I began to feel cheerful : a something told me I 
should pass successfully ; and when, at 4.30 p.m., I 
handed my papers in to the senior teacher, I was very 
sanguine. I was not disappointed either, for though I 
did not take the very highest award ever given, yet I 
took the next ; and when it is to be remembered I am 
only a young man, I think I ought to feel very proud, 
as indeed I do, of my first-class diploma. So the time 
at last came for me" to say my 

Farewell. 

And as I did so I felt I was parting with more than 
teachers, they were friends, ever ready to help or advise 
in every possible way ; and I felt I should be neglecting 
my duty if I did not give my tribute to the patience 
and care shown me, as well as to express my apprecia- 
tion of the very excellent systems taught ; systems 
which after I have put them to a thorough test during 
my several month's active practice, I feel it would be 
difficult to improve. Further, I would add my testi- 
mony to the excellence of the lodgings, for whilst there, 
I felt quite at home, everything was done pleasantly 
and cheerfully, and I am certain that much of my suc- 
cess was due to the pleasant social surroundings I had 
in the evenings ; so that in conclusion I would recom- 
mend every Student to stay there, as they will find 
everything is respectable, clean, and comfortable ; at 
least so I found them. 

These are the general impressions I formed of the Tai- 
lor and Cutter Academy during my three month's stay, 
and I shall do all that lies in my power, to recommend 
anyone aspiring to become a cutter, to follow the course 
I followed, feeling assured he will be equally as satisfied 
as I am. 

Yours fraternally, 

A MASTER TAILOR'S SON. 



With the view of stimulating our Students to do their very best whilst at the Academy we have much pleasure 

in announcing 

A, Special Prize °\ralwe £io, 

To be competed for between the dates of July 1st to October 31st, 1892. 



A WHEELER & WILSONS TAILORS' SEWING MACHINE, 

of the latest design, with all improvements, will be 

AWARDED TO THE MOST SUCCESSFUL STUDENT, 

Who completes not less than one month's tuition between the above dates. Marks will be awarded day by day in 

accordance with the progress made and at the close of his term of tuition a final examination will be made ; 

this together with the Teachers' observations will decide the award, which will be announced early 

in November in the Tailor and Cutter. 

©pes t@ all 8tu4eafs« If© ©^tra fees* 



LADIES' TAEL01I 





How Ladies may acquire 

M if lilting E|d 1eH|| 

The Course of Tuition for Lady Students at the Tailor and Gutter Gutting Academy, 

93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 

The season just passed has marked a new era in our Cutting Academy. One 
room has usually been set apart for Lady Students, but the increase in their numbers 
this year has been so marked as to render special provision for their accommodation 
necessary. It may interest some of our patrons, and at the same time form a reply 
to many enquiries we are constantly receiving, if we give a brief outline of our course 
of procedure generally, in our Lady Students' department. This is not rigorously 
followed, as the individual capacities and requirements of each Student have to be 
studied, so as to give to each, just that instruction which will be of the most service 
to them. When we state that our Students come from all ranks and classes — the 
professional dressmaker, the lady philanthropist who desires the knowledge so that 
she may help others to gain a living, the lady in private life who wishes to design 
and make her own garments, the lady teacher who comes here to qualify herself for 
the position of teacher to the various Technical Schools now being opened by the 
County Council; as our Lady Students embrace all these, and as each have different 
capacities to begin with, and different ideals to realise, each needs individual treatment. 

THE FIRST LESSON 

Initiates our Lady Students into the mysteries of the use of the chalk, the handling 
the square, tape, &c, and then we proceed with skirts in their different varieties. As 
many of the Students desire to work out their lessons practically, they procure some 
material and make up the various garments as they proceed, doing the sewing at 
home, and bringing the garment with them at the Academy for inspection and advice; 
»8 to the correctness of their progress. 

Skirt cutting, making, and draping are soon mastered, and then they pass on 
to the more difficult task of bodice and jacket cutting. This needs more application 
and patience to master than the skirt ; but in the course of one lesson the principles 
are grasped, and in most cases, by the end of the second or third day, the bodice and 
jacket can be drafted to any measures with proficiency and ease. Then the Lady 
Student, if she so desires, proceeds to make up a bodice or jacket, cut by herself, and 
as she proceeds, all 

THE MYSTERIES OF MANIPULATION 

Are explained to her : the making and fitting up, sewing the scams, the putting in the 
bone casing, the canvas, the pressing, the stretching and shrinking, the parts to be 
fulled on or held tight, sleeve and collar making, and all the great and small technical 
details of Ladies' Practical Tailoring are fully and minutely explained as she proceeds, 
and when the garment is got into a satisfactory state, then follows : 

A PRACTICAL LESSON IN FITTING, 

Detailing the points that require to be specially noticed, the methods to follow, the 
mode of making alterations explained, the importance of studying customers' views 
emphasized, the difference of material, and then, as occasion may offer, the Instructor 
replies to any queries that may be put by the Lady Students, which occur to them 
either in connection with the lessons in Cutting, or the making or manipulating of the 
garments they cut, each having their own difficulties and for which they each seek a 
remedy. 

The above is the first page of our New Prospectus of Terms and Arrangements in connection with the 
lAddies' Branch of our Cutting Academy — which will be 6ent to any address on receipt of stamp for postage. 



THE TAILORS METHOD 

Of making up a garment is so widely different to that followed by the dressmaker, that 
many of the Students have said it has been one series of surprises to them, to see one 
detail after another worked out in such a vastly different Way to what they have been 
accustomed ; methods which at once assert their superiority so conclusively, that they 
ask themselves however they could have overlooked it ; and there is no longer any 
wonder in their minds, how it is the tailor produces such vastly superior results to the 
dressmakers. This is indeed one of the special and important features in our Academy 
for Lady Students, that they may acquire the practical part, or making up of garments 
by tailor methods as well as the Cutting. Our Lady Students are of course expected 
to be able to sew, we do not undertake to teach that ; but those who have some know- 
ledge of dressmaking, can acquire the art of putting garments together in tailor fashion. 

THE RANGE OF GARMENTS 

We teach is very wide, embracing every garment worn by Ladies, now usually made by 
tailors, and garments also outside this range. For instance, many of our Lady Students 
this season have requested lessons in cutting bodices for evening wear ; others have 
asked for the divided skirt, instructions in each case being imparted in detail. Many 
of the Ladies avail themselves of the opportunity afforded them of attending the daily 
lecture, delivered to our ordinary students, especially when such subjects as "Art in 
relation to Tailoring," or " Ladies' Tailoring," are being dealt with, and have expressed 
themselves highly pleased with the practical applications of art to the various forms 
and complexions. 

OUR TERMS 

Are as follows : For six daily Lessons, 2 guineas. For 12 daily Lessons, 3 guineas. 
For 25 daily Lessons, £5. 50 daily Lessons, .£10, or 75 daily Lessons, <£12 10s. 
These Lessons need not necessarily be consecutive, though we very much prefer them 
to be as continuous as possible, as the Student makes much more rapid progress when 
the Lessons are continued without interruption. We shall be pleased to advise any 
Lady as to the probable number of Lessons she would require to make herself proficient 
in this art ; most of our Lady Students accomplish all they require in twelve Lessons. 

WHAT OUR STUDENTS ACCOMPLISH. 

Many of our Lady Students are now occupying the most important positions in the 
various Technical Colleges throughout the country, and our Diploma is the best pass- 
port to the County Council appointments, which are now becoming available for Ladies 
all over the country. Others of our Students are in business for themselves, or holding 
good positions in the leading houses in the various centres of fashion. We append a 
few testimonials received from recent Students and which will tell their own tale : 

" I am pleased to say I have benefitted from your judicious care in teaching me, and I thank you very 
much for your patience. Should I have an opportunity of recommending the Tailor and Cutter Academy 
I shall not fail to do so."— October 15th, 1891. B. P. 

" I tender my best thanks for the very careful instruction which you have given me, and I feel that 1 have 
had special attention to enable me to have completed the course in so short a time." July 28, 1891. E. S. 

" On completion of my term of Tuition I tender you my best thanks for the special attention paid me, 
having greatly benefitted from the instruction and Lectures under such able and patient teachers." E. 0. G. 

DO WE SEND OUT TEACHERS 

Is a question thac has been often asked, and to this we reply that arrangements can 
be made to do this, full particulars of which we shall be pleased to forward on application. 




Ill/ J5 to l||f l^ltf}! lUC oJfrw a Cou^e of ^ulUow aaa, KU 

CUO cw2> ^Sd^ce of 0^3 at-^ljf l§ail0ll> ^clj^l of 
fo. 93 i 94-, DRURY I2ANE, knNDflN Ma*, //f- \^2, 




W «E1 







J& 










X^~~>c^<i 




This is a reduced copy of the engraved Diploma awarded to successful Students at our Academy. 

The original measures 20 inches by 12^ ■ inches. Those who pass their examination " with 

Honours " are awarded a very beautifully executed Diploma in colours. 

A PROSPECTUS containing full particulars of our Terms and arrangements sent on application. 





FROM SUCCESSFUL CUTTERS 

WHO GRADUATED AT THE "TAILOR AND CUTTER ACADEMY. 



Miss E. Z. S., writes: " Aooept thanks for Diploma, I am 
very pleased with it and have greatly benefitted from the in- 
structions given in your institution." 

From Miss E. A. J., Brighton: "Thanks to the excellent 
teaching received at your Academy, I am appointed teacher of 
S6venoaks as well as at Tunbridge Wells." 

Miss B. P. writes : " 1 am pleased to say that I have benefitted 
from your judicious care in teaching me, and I thank you very 
much for your patience, and should I have an opportunity of 
recommending the Tailor and Cutter Cutting Academy I shall 
not fail to do so." 

Mrs. H. writes : " I have attended with great interest and 
pleasure the Tailor and Cutter Classes, and consider that I have 
gained very much useful information, and wish to thank you 
for the particularly patient and painstaking way in which you 
have explained it. I have made a garment for a child from 
measurements duriDg the time I have attended the class, and 
it was in every way a success." 

Miss M. P. B. writes : " Having finished my present course 
of tuition at your Academy, I wish, before leaving, to express 
my warm thanks to you for the careful and patient way in which 
I have been instructed. I consider your system a most thorough 
one, and shall only be too glad to resume my lessons again in a 
higher branch as soon as time and ciroumstances will permit " 

Mr. A. C. G. writes : " In leaving your Academy, and taking 
with me a Diploma, I beg to express my sincere thanks for the 
courtesy, patience and excellence of tuition I have received from 
the teachers during my term of study. Your system of cutting 
gives me every satisfaction, and especially as regards cutting 
for abnormalities, Ac. One of the Bpecial features of your 
course of tuition are the lectures to which I attach the highest 
value, because of the interesting and instructive matter they 
contain, the excellent business principles they impart, and of 
their high moral tone. Should an opportunity occur, I shall 
not fail to recommend your Academy with every confidence as 
a first-class institution for a young man to learn the Art of 
Cutting." 

From G. S., Cambridge : " I consider it to be a matter of duty 
that I should write to let you know how I have been getting 
on since I left the Academy. The systems taught are almost 
perfection ; I have used them for 3 years and they fit splendid. 
I can safely recommend any young man who wants to learn 
cutting to go at once to the Tailor and Cutter School of Art, 93 & 
94, Drury Lane, London, W.C. 

Mr. G. W. W., Plymouth, writes : " Gentlemen, — I can- 
not leave this Academy without expressing my hearty thanks 
to the teachers for the attention and kindness that has been 
shown me during my stay. Also my entire satisfaction with 
the method of teaching, and the very instructive daily lectures. 
Everything has been done that could perfect me in the Art of 
Cutting, and it would have been my own fault if I had not got 
on well." 

Mr. A. P., writes : " I thank you for the Diploma which I 
received quite safe ; and I wish to say that I feel quite satisfied 
with the instruction I received during my six weeks stay at 
your Academy." 

Mr. R. K., writes : " I am almost three monthBin the situation 
I now hold, and I have not had a misfit, and never more alter- 
ation at a time than a button, or some trivial thing of that sort, 
since the start. — Your old student. 

Mr. T. W. S. writes : " My Diploma duly to hand, for which 
accept my best thanks. I may also say I am finding the system 
to work first-class. The first coat I cut was for a man that 
could not get one to fit him about the shoulders, the one cut fits 
splendid. I have cut for stooping and disproportionate too, I 
find it to work first-class." 

F. W. writes : "lam pleased to say we are full of orders, 
and since my return home — thanks to the valuable instruction 
received at the Academy — business has almost doubled." 

F. E. W writes : "lam perfectly satisfied with the course 
of tuition I received at the Tailor and Cutter Office, and can- 
not sufficiently express my thanks for the great pains taken 
with me." 



I have got on well since I was under your teachers. I am 
in the first situation over three years. — S. P. 

W. C, Northampton, writes : " I must say the lessons I 
had at youroffice have been of immense service. It has reduoed 
coat cutting to a pleasure. " 

Mr. J. B. writes: "To day my course of study at your 
academy comes to a close, but before leaving, I desire to bear 
testimony to the kindness, patience, and ability of the teachers, 
and it is with a feeling of deep sincerity that I offer the teachers 
my best thanks. 

I desire also to say how highly I appreciate the weekly 
lectures for the useful information they contain. And if I ever 
meet with anyone desirous of learning the cutting I shall 
certainly recommend them to the Tailor and Cutter office, 93 and 
94, Drnry Lane." 

R. Houghton, The Citadel, Cairo, writes : " Sir, — I expect 
that your surprise will be great in hearing from me again 
through the hand of a friend, but an opportunity presented 
itself to me to send that friend to you as a pupil of our art, and 
beiDg thoroughly satisfied after a large practice of two years 
with what you taught me, I have much pleasure in recommend- 
ing him to you, as a man likely to do oredit to whatever you 
might teach him, feeling sure that he will be as much satisfied 
with your systems and teachings as I have been myself. I 
especially commend him to you as a friend of mine, and as one 
in whom I take a great interest. Mr. Phillips (that is his name) 
is unfortunately not a practical tailor, but your long experience 
of teaching non-practical men will, I do not doubt, make as 
good a cutter of him as most praotical men that I have come 
across. 

Mr. G. C. writes : " I connot leave without thanking you for 
the manner which you have attended to me during my stay 
here at th6 academy, and don't hesitate in recommending any 
intending to become cutters." 

J. M. writes : " Gentlemen, — As what is usually termed a 
non-practical man, I am pleased to testify to the value of the 
instruction imparted at the School of Cutting at the Tailor and 
Cutter Office. I am in business for myself as a General Outfit- 
ter, and ten years since had some small practice as a cutter, but 
since that time have been in business where no bespoke work 
was done, until two years ago I took a business where a fair 
bespoke trade was done, and then determined to do my own 
cutting and save the expense of a cutter. Three weeks only at 
the Tailor and Cutter Academy was sufficient to enable me to do 
this with &atisfaotion to my customers and myself. I would 
also like to bear witness to the painstaking and courteous man- 
ner iu which the instruction is imparted. 

Mr. T. T. T. writes : " Gentlemen,— To-day my course of tuition 
at your Academy comes to a close, but before leaving, I think 
it my earnest desire to bear testimony to the kindness patience, 
and ability of the teachers, and it is with a feeling of sincerity 
that I offer my beit thanks, I desire also to say that anyone 
having the ambition of learning the art of cutting I strongly re- 
commend tbem to the Tailor and Cutter's offices, 93 and 94, 
Drury Lane." 

F. H. P., Leicestershire, writeB : " I have been here at your 
Academy six weeks, and many thanks to all concerned in the 
art of teaching cutting, I have feuud everything very pleasant 
and nice during my stay, and referring more especially to the 
lectures and debates I have heard which have been very interest- 
ing and instructive. The teachers I must say are ever ready 
and willing to tell and explain to the students anything they 
wish to know. As I always take the Tailor and Cutter journal in 
weekly and read the contents, I generally know how things are 
going on, and shall now ever think of the six weeks of learning 
the art of cutting, and the kind way towards me." 

F. W. P. writes : " I have been four weeks a student at 
the Cutting School, and I am highly pleased with the attention 
paid to me ; and beg to thank th<? teachers for the instructions 
which have been so satisfactory to me." 

S. A. and H. S. write : " We have been at your Cutting 
Academy for four weeks, and we are highly satisfied with 
the attention paid to us by the teachers. We have made 
excellent progress, and consider the arrangements first-class." 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



THREE MONTHS AT THE 

TAILOR AND COTTER ACADEMY. 

PREPARED SPECIALLY FOR INTENDING STUDENTS. 

BY AN EX-STUDENT. 

An ex- Student of ours began writing an article on his Course of Tuition at our 
Academy. We considered it so realistic, that we induced him to proceed, and embrace 
in it his whole course of tuition, which extended to 3 months. This we now publish for 
the special benefit of intending Students. The following Syllabus will show its scope : 



First thoughts of becoming a cutter 

How he proceeded to put thought into action 

Negotiates for a course of lessons at the Tailor and 
Cutter Academy 

First day at the Academy — the Academy and his 
fellow students fully described 

Social life at the Academy — a banquet and magic 
lantern entertainment 

Special garments for the deformed, illustrated by a 
number of engraved figures and diagrams 

Prize competitions — measuring, cutting and fit- 
ting a cutter for one of the students— fully 
described 

Hints on trying on— a lecture delivered while fit- 
ting on the coat, given in detail 

Alterations, and how to make them — notes of 



another lecture 

Defects in Trousers 

Cutting from block patterns — notes of Lecture, 
with diagram 

Block Cutting, illustrated by a number of dispro- 
portionate figures including the erect, the stoop- 
ing, the corpulent, the hunch back and the pro- 
porti onate 

Treatment of workmen — notes of lecture 

Punctuality the soul of business 

Students discuss trade topics 

The greatest evil in the trade ; Sweating ; the best 
paying branch of the trade 

Diagrams, Drawing Books and Diplomas 

Seeking a situation — the heckling process ; my 
own experience ; conclusion 



a Guide to 



This treatise is got up in good style, and is printed on good paper, and being prepared specially as 
Intending Students to our Academy, it is supplied at the nominal charge of 

Sixpence. Post free Seven pence. 

Students' Preparatory Instructor 

Or the Art of Learning to Cut and Succeed in Business, 

An invaluable Acquisition to all Intending Students. Containing complete directions for Self-Tuition, 

By JOHN WILLIAMSON, Editor of " The Tailor and Cutter." 
SYLLABUS OF CONTENTS: 



Introduction. 

Pbkliminabt Work. 

The Abt of Using the Chalk.. 

Fibst Lesson : Giving instructions in 

draughting. Illustrated by a diagram. 

To Dbauqht by System. Illustrated by a 

diagram. 
Two Methods of Cutting : Breast Mea 
sure and Admeasurement systems ex- 
plained, and their respective merits 
diucussed. 



Admeasurement : Illustrated by two plates 

of figures and diagram. 

Systems Judged by Results. 

Scientific and Mechanical Cutting 

Cutting by Blocks. 

Adapting Blocks to Diffebent Styles 

of Gabments. illustrated. 
Also to Diffebent Fobms of Men. Illu- 
strated. 
The Cutteb's Judgment. 
The Abt of Tbying On. 
The Use of Gbaduated Tapes Explained. 



D1BEOT10N8 fob Self-Tuition. Giving 
particulars as to the means available 
and the order of procedure. 
Success in Business. Some of the neces- 
sary qualificaons. 
Necessaby Objects of Study. 

The Cutteb an Abtist. 
The Need of Entebpbisb. 

Energy Misdibeoted. 

How Stulz made his Fobtune. 

The Pbikoe and his Tailob. 

Conclusion. 



The Sixth Edition includes interesting and instructive Lectures, with practical Illustrations as 
given before the Students at " The Tailor and Cutter " office, by eminent members of the profession 

PRICE ONE SHILLING, well worth 5s. to any intending Student. 

The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



The Tailor and Cutter Business Notices. 

Autumn and Winter 1892-93. 



TO OUR OLD PATRONS AND 
SUBSCRIBERS. 

" I have been a regular reader of the Tailor and Cutter for 
Thirty years," writes one of our friends from the provinces. 
This, though scarcely a literally accurate statement, seeing 
that the Tailor and Cutter is only in its twenty-seventh year, 
is a sample of the kind testimony we are all the time receiv- 
ing, and which is constantly and continually proving that - in 
finding out the wants and requirements of the trade with the 
view of supplying them in the very best and most trust- 
worthy manner, we are carrying on a work which is receiv- 
ing on every hand the most hearty appreciation. To those 
of our clients who, like the one just mentioned, are of old 
standing, it will not be necessary for us to say anything 
concerning those business methods which have secured their 
confidence in the past. We have only to thank them for 
favours already received, and to assure them that our best 
endeavours will, as formerly, be continually at their disposal. 

TO OUR NEW FRIENDS. 

Who, in increasing numbers, are being added to our ever- 
extending clientele, it may be advantageous that we should 
give a few notes, outlining, as it were, the general arrange- 
ments of our business, and indicating in some measure our 
methods and resources. Chitfly, then, for those who have 
only recently commenced doing business with us, or indeed 
may be only anticipating a first order, the following par- 
ticulars have been prepared, and will, we have no doubt, be 
serviceable in fulfilling the object aimed at. 

Perhaps the most important branch of our business is 

Our Model Pattern Department. 

Which has grown and developed to such a vast extent that 
we have been compelled by the immense demand to keep 
large stocks of these patterns even in such far-away places as 
Melbourne (Australia) and Wellington (New Zealand). 

It would be impossible for us, at any time to publish the 
whole of our pattern testimonies — they would fill the entire 
Chart in small type ; but we have made a selection from the 
pile, so that the success which has invariably attended their 
use in practice may be seen. As usual at the beginning 
of each season, our Patterns have undergone thorough in- 
spection and revision, and have been carefully adapted to 
the changes in style necessitated by the requirements of chang- 
ing fashion, and we think we may say, without hesitation, that 
the Model Patterns we are now offering through this Chart 
are, both as regards fit, comfort, and style, as perfect as Pat- 
terns can possibly be. 



Sending for Model Patterns 

Of Coats, Vests, Ladies', Youths' and Juvenile body garments, 
tho breast measure alone is all that is necessary and it will 
prevent the possibility of the wrong style of garment being 
sent if the figure illustrating it upon our chart be cut out and 
sent with the order. Our pink chart is prepared specially, at 
considerable cost, to guide our patrons in selecting the style 
of Patterns they require. 

For Model Patterns of Trousers, the number and the system 
cut by is all that is necessary. 

Sending for Special Patterns. 

The full measures of the customer, so far as practicable, 
must be sent, and any peculiarity of the form of customer de- 
scribed. While our model patterns invariably fit fairly pro- 
portionate figures, the success of our special cut patterns must 
depend on correct measures, and a fairly accurate description 
of the figure. Mea-ure forms, with instructions for measur- 
ing, can be had at our office. 

The style of garment, and specially in ladies, should be cor- 
rectly sent with orders for special pattern, and, whenever 
possible, a figure illustrating the style should be sent, which 
can always be returned. Prices : Gents' Coats, Trousers, 
Ladies' Jackets, 1/2 each ; Overgarments, 1/8 each. 

Special Pattern Department. 

It will, in sojie cases, save unnecessary trouble and delay if 
we state that, while a model pattern is cut proportionate to a 
given breast measure, a special cut pattern is cut to the 
measures of the customer forwarded to us. The breast measure 
is all that is necessary for a model pattern, but the full measures 
of the customers are required for a special pattern. If these 
are sent with some degree of accuracy, and any peculiarity in 
the customer's figure correctly described, then we guarantee 
to send a good fitting pattern. Further particulars in regard 
to specials will be found on next page. 

Hints on Ordering. 

Make sure that name and full Postal address is either 
printed or written distinctly on the order form. 

In ordering Model Patterns the number and size should 
be always quoted ; it is also advisable to state whether for 
Lady or Gentleman. 

In ordering Special Patterns, full measures and description 
of any abnormality are imperative. Sketch or illustration 
of style required should also accompany the order. 

Remittances should whenever possible, be made by cheque 
or postal order or note ; but where this is inconvenient, 
stamps will be accepted. Coin should in no case be sent by 
post unless the letter containing it is registered. Cheques, 
postal notes, &c, should be made payable to the John 
Williamson Company, Limited. 

All communications in any way relating to the business 
must be addressed to the Company and. not to individuals. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London W.C 



Tailor and Cutter Business Notices, continued. 



Ladies' Patterns. 

The ladies trade has greatly increased the business of our 
pattern department. Many who find no difficulty in cutting 
for and pleasing gentlemen, lack the necessary confidence in 
" tackling " a lady's garment. This is amply provided for in 
the perfect fitting models supplied at the " Tailor and Cutter " 
Office. These, as our illustrated chart shews, are supplied in 
all the new and popular styles. Very many find these patterns 
a great acquisition, and those who fini the slightest difficulty 
in fitting and pleasing their lady cuntomers, should not hesi- 
tate in making a trial of our ladies' models. The saving in 
time, the comfort, and the profit will be found more than a 
hundred fold the nominal amount charged for the patterns. 

To those who wish it so. 

Those of our patrons who may desire to have Model or Spe- 
cial Cut Patterns forwarded in private envelopes can have them 
so sent without extra charge, by stating that this is their wish 
when sending the order. 

Our Cutting Academy. 

Some details of our Academy will be found upon other pages, 
but intending students who have no knowledge of the art 
should not fail to send for our " Instructor and Guide," some 
particulars of which will be found on another page, or " Three 
Months at the Tailor and Cutter Academy," by an Ex-Student, 
details of which will be found on another page. 

A considerable development has recently taken place in 
connection with onr Lady Students' Department, and, 
during recent months, our resources in this direction have 
been severely taxed. This is, in some measure, owing to the 
demand which has sprung up for Lady teachers of cutting in- 
technical schools and institutions ; and, in order to meet it 
efficiently, we have fitted up a special room for Lady 
Students and we are now equally well equipped in this as in 
our other departments. 

Our Published Works. 

An abridged catalogue of these will be found at the end of 
this chart, and a more extended catalogue, giving more com- 
plete details of each of our published works will be forwarded 
on receipt of stamp for postage. These works afford oppor- 
tunity for acquiring the art of cutting by self -tuition, to ,be 
found m no other publishing firm, and it is only during recent 
years that such works could be had at any price. 

Our Large Plates of Fashion. 

These by well nigh general consent, are pronounced the most 
artistic and faithful representations of costume ever published. 
They are our Bi-annual Plate of Gents Fashions, and our 
Livery Plate, both of which are magnificent pictures. We 
also supply a splendid hand-coloured Plate illustrating the 
uniforms worn by the various regiments of the British Army ; 
and a companion picture showing the Dress of the officers and 
men of the British Navy. 

N.B. The large Livery Plate, of which several editions 
have be n called for, id now out of print, and, though changes 
in the style of Livery garments are not frequently made, an 
entirely new Plate is being prepared, which will be the finest 
and most comprehensive illustiation of "Liveries up to date" 
yet produced. It will be duly announced in the Tailor and 
Cutter, but, as it is a work of considerable magnitude, some 
little time must necessarily elapse before it is ready for 
publication. 

Various Appliances. 

We also supply Improved Squares, Tapes, Crayons, Crayon 
Holders, Scissors, Button Covering Machine, Trouser Stretch- 
ers, Sleeve Boards, and similar trade appliances. 



The Tailor & Gutter & other Shears. 

The importance of a Cutter having shears that he can use 
with ease and comfort, and that will divide a line on the 
material with cleanness and certainty, induced us to give our 
special attention to these, and we have them made to our own 
pattern and idea. A trial, in every case, has proved that we 
have been highly successful. This, to m»ny is worth knowing. 

We have also made arrangements for the supply of the 
New Patent Lever Shears, which are pronounced a boon to 
Cutters ; and also for special makes of Shears and Taimmers, 
such as Heinsch's, Seymour's, &c, full particulars of which 
appear in out advertisement pages. 

Our Colonial and Foreign Subscribers. 

Who are now to be found in every important town in the 
world will be interested to learn that by the introduction and 
extension of the Parcel Post we are enabled to supply most 
of the articles descrioed in this catalogue at a cost very little, 
if anything, in excess of that charged to our patrons in ibis 
country. 

The reduction in the price charged for postage of books 
now enables us to send any of our publications to any place in 
the Postal Union at a uniform rate of 4d. per lb., the price 
of subscription to the Tailor and Cutter and Ladies Tailor 
being the same as in England, viz., 14s. and 10s. per annum, 
respectively. 

Patterns, Shears, Books and in fact any goods to the value 
of £1 will be forwarded free on receipt of an additional shil- 
ling, and for orders of larger amount it may be taken as a 
sufficiently reliable rule, that except where otherwise stated 
in our Foreign Tariff of Prices, the cost of postage will be 
covered by the addition of one shilling in the pound. Every 
precaution will be taken to ensure the delivery of all articles 
ordered in good condition and in the shortest time possible. 

Foreign Editions of the " Tailor & Cutter." 

Specially prepared foreign editions of the above journal are 
now published in 

Australia.— New Zealand. — America. —Germany.— 
France. — Italy. 

The three last being translated into the language of the 
countries named, are being received with the greatest favour, 
not only in the vanous portions of the Continents where one 
or other of these languages is a lingua franca, but also amongst 
the numerous body of German, French, Belgian, Italian, and 
other foreign tailors residing in England. Full particulars as 
to agents, prices, &c, will be found on another page. 

Private Charts. 

Every season we have a considerable demand for Private 
Charts specially prepared for Individual Firms. These are 
invariably found to facilitate and extend business, showing 
as they do, that spirit of enterprise which commands the con- 
fidence of customers, both new and old. None are in a better 
position or have larger resources, for getting up such ch-irts. 
Not only are we at the fountain head of all the new and popu- 
lar styles. We have also facilities for producing these which 
no other firm has. 

Advertising Blocks 

Illustrating New and Popular Styles in Ladies', Gents' and 
Juvenile Garments, being fac similes of the figures showing 
our Model Patterns in the Pink Chart, can, in future, be 
supplied at a price, which, considering the artistic nature of 
the engravings, is almost nominal. The*e blocks will be very 
serviceable for illustrated Circulars, Bill-Heads, Newspaper 
Advertisements, &c. Full particulars on another page. 



UNSOLICITED TESTIMONIALS. 

The originals of these with Yery many others can be seen at the " Tailor and Cutter " Office. 



PATTERNS. 

Lounge Pattern fitted splendid. — E.L. 
The last patterns sent me were splendid 
fits.— J. R. 

Dress Coat Pattern I had last was a 
" clinker."— F. E. 

All patterns I have had from you have 
been perfection. — C. H. 

D. B. Reefer I had from you fitted 
grand. — G. H. G., Maesteg. 

All patterns had from you have been 
perfection. — A. S., Edinburgh. 

The S. B. Coat Pattern you sent me, 
May 18th, fits beautifully.— J. W., 
Rotherbam. 

Last Morning Coat was an excellent 
fit — your patterns are not to be beaten. 
—A. F. N. 

L. S. 0. writes : " Thanks for last 
patterns, they are all that could be 
desired." 

W. J. Q. writes : "Your coat and 
vest patterns of my last order were really 
beautiful." 

The last special pattern sent for was a 
great success ; am highly pleased with it. 
W. W., Towcester. 

I have had a good many patterns from 
you and can find nothing to beat them. — 
J. G., Kempston. 

The last pattern I had was a capital 
fit, although customer was so dispro- 
portionate. — J. R., Greenock. 

I am very much pleased with the prize 
pattern I had from you some little time 
ago. — A. S., Abergavenny. 

Coachman's frock pattern I got last 
year was a very good fit ; made another 
coat off it last week. — W. T. 

H. S. writes : " All patterns I have 
had from you fit to a nicety and have 
led to many orders I should not other- 
wise have had." 

I got one of your models of Jady's 
jacket, and it was such a splendid fit that 
the lady is giving me an order for 
another.— T. McE. 

J. B. writes :— I got from you lately 
a pattern for a ladies' jacket, and it fitted 
beautifully, my customer was highly 
pleased with it." 

S. D. writes : " I have had patterns 
from you for several years and always 
found them fit and give general satisfac- 
tion." 

P. M. writes : " The Newmarket 
Ulster I had of you gave great satisfac- 
tion, the lady saying it fitted her like a 
glove." 

H. and G. write : <■ The S. B. Chester 
Model 38 breast, and S. B. Chester 
Special, 43 breast, we had from you last 
month surpass all previous patterns in fit 
and satisfaction to customers." 



W. J. Q. writes : "It is a great pleasure 
to me to be able to state that all the 
patterns I have had off you have been 
perfection quite, and have been the 
means of the present and a couple more 
orders." 

I am very thankful to you for the 
special patterns of Morning Coat and 
Vest. They fitted splendidly without 
slightest alteration ; in fact I am well 
pleased with all patterns received from 
time to time during last eleven years. 
They have given entire satisfaction. — 
J. P. (Sergt.-Master Tailor), Glasgow. 

PLATES & PUBLICATIONS. 

Received half-yearly Plate to-day and 
like it very much. — J. J. C, Farnworth. 

I like the Ladies' Tailor very much. — 
H. M., Marseilles, France. 

I am highly pleased with Fashion Plate. 
It reflects great credit both upon artist 
and di-signer, in fact I consider it one of 
the best plates I have ever seen. — 
T. H. S., Whampton. 

I had one of your winter Fashion 
Plates, and would not like to miss the 
spring one. — J. T. E., Plymouth. 

I have been a subscriber to the Tailor 
and Cutter for the last 12 years, and 
have been benefitted by its valuable hints 
all along. — W. A., Alves. 

I have reaped good and valuable in- 
formation from your journal to which I 
have been a subscriber upwards of 20 
years. — C. B., Hollingworth. 

Allow a 21 years subscriber to con- 
gratulate you on the excellent journal 
you continue to provide. — G. H. S., 
Leeds. 

I have been a subscriber to your journal 
from the beginning, and consider it by 
far the best journal published ; in fact 
both young and old may gather informa- 
tion from any number they may peruse. 
—J. T., Halifax. 

I get great help from the Ladies' 
Tailor. I have put it to the test with 
the best results. — C. M., Dumbarton. 

BOOKS. 

I received book safely and am well 
satisfied with it. — S. G. M., Birmingham. 

The " Cutter's Practical Guide," part I. 
is of great service to me. — H.W., Anston. 

I think the Lays will be very useful 
and effect a great saving in material. — 
H. P., Neath. 

Many thanks for part II. "Cotters' 
Practical Guide " to hand this morning. 
It is a capital book and cheap at the 
price. — A. H. W., Brighton. 

I received part two of the " Cutters' 
Practical Guide," and think it splendid. 
The system seems very simple but per- 
fect.— M. S., Killyleagh. 



I received the " Academy System for 
Trousers " quite safe, and think it will 
produce as good a fitting pair of trousers 
as anybody need want. — T. C, Beston. 

The " Cutters' Album " is one of the 
most useful works I have ever seen. It 
is a marvei of cheapness combined with 
simplicity and economy ; built on honest 
principles. It should be in the hands of 
every tailor. — P. G., Gorey, co-Wexford. 

" Cutters' Practical Guide," part I. is 
a splendid book, and one I would not 
part with for thrice the money it cost. — 
J. D., Elgin. 

SHEARS & MISCELLANEOUS. 

I am very pleased with the gas stove 
I had from you. — H. P., Meath. 

Your graduated tapes are most useful. 
— L. M., Ely Valley. 

I consider the shears I had from you 
are very good. — H. W. 

I am very well pleased with the square 
you sent me a fortnight ago. — J. W. 

I have used your graduated tapes with 
great advantage for some time.— -J. J. 

Set of graduated tapes received on 
Saturday please me excellently. — W. M. 

I received tapes, &c, all right, and am 
very much pleased with them. — J. M. S., 
Muirkirk. 

Received Tailor and Cutter Square 
all right to-day, and am highly pleased 
with them. — J. W., Strathmigle. 

The graduated square you forwarded 
has given perfect satisfaction. — J.M., 
Brighton. 

The small Heinisch's scissors I sent 
for about a fortnight ago are a treat. — 
S. B., Swaffham. 

I have seen Mr. Halls' graduated tapes, 
and both he and I are very well pleased 
with them. — R. G., Haslingden. 

I have got my square and tapes all 
right, and I am highly pleased with 
them. — W. H., Bonnybridge. 

I am very much pleased with the 
Crayon-holder. — J. A. R., Grenada. 

The shears I had of you last year 
have given great satisfaction. — L. W., 
Leicester. 

I may Bay that I am greatly pleased 
wiih the Bhears I had from you a month 
ago, they are satisfactory in every way. 
— M. J., Dublin. 

The shears I received from you a week 
ago are excellent, and give every satis- 
faction ; I wish I had had them years 
ago.— G. W., York. 

The shears which I purchased from 
you over three years ago I am pleased to 
say have given me every satisfaction. — 
R. B., Portsmouth. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



RELIABLE 



MODEL and SPECIAL PATTERNS, 



SPECIAL CUT PATTERNS. 

No department of our business is more highly appre- 
ciated by our patrons, than this one, in which Special 
Patterns are cut for their customers. When any very 
particular customer, in regard to peculiarity of style and 
fashion comes along, all that is necessary to do, so as 
to secure the Newest Fashion of the class of garment 
he requires, is to forward the measures to The Tailor 
and Cutter Office, with a description of the customer if 
he shows any peculiarities of form, and a pattern exactly 
as required will be returned by the next post. 

The value of this department can only be known by 
those who take advantage of it. Many have succeeded in 
fitting most satisfactorily large and peculiar figures, who 
could never do so before, and thus, personal comfort, 
saving of time, and success is secured, for the very 
nominal outlay — in the case of a coat — of 1/2. 



LADIES' PATTERNS. 

This department is specially successful in Jackets, Ulsters, 
Dolmans in all styles, Habits, &c. Correct measures of 
the lady are certain to secure in return a perfect fitting 
Pattern. 

Prices of Special Patterns. 

Riding Habit, Trains, Cloaks, Cassocks, Dolmans, Ulsters, 
Military Patterns, Inverness Capes, Boys' Bnits, 1/8 each. Post free. 

Gentlemen's Coats, Tronsers, Breeches, Sleeve Vests, Ladies 
Jackets, 1/2 each. Post free. 

Vests, Leggings, Capes, 6£d. each. 

Model Goat Patterns 

FOR BUSINESS OR WORKING MEN. 

Our ordinary Model Patterns are cnt to fit comfortably close 
with a atylish appearance in wear Bat so frequently is it 
stated, in communications we receive, that " my customers are 
principally of the farmer or working class, with whom ease 
And comfort are important considerations," that we have pre- 
pared sets of COAT PATTERNS specially for this class. 
They are cnt in two styles only 

S.B. University, and S.B. Reefer, 

In 7 sizes : 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, ana 44 b. measure and in 
i,A)wn paper only. One Pattern, lOd. The Set, 4/3. Post free. 



WORKING MEN'S TROUSERS. 



No. 
1 



waist 
32 
34 
36 



seat 


No. 


35 


4 


36 


5 


38 


6 



waist 
38 
40 
42 



seat 
40 
42 

44 



One pattern lOd. Set of 6 for 3/9. Post free. 

NEW MODEL PATTERNS OF 
Riding Pantaloons and Breeches. 



Riding Breeches Models. 



Riding Pantaloon Models. 



No. 1.— 30 waist. 34 seat. No. 1.-28 waiut. 34 seat 



2.-32 




36 




„ 2,— 30 


» 


36 


3.-33 




38 




., 3.-33 




38 


4.-35 




40 




„ 4.-35 




40 


5.-38 


» 


42 


)i 


„ 5.-37 


ii 


42 



Each Pattern lOd. the set of 5, 3/3 ; post free. 



CUTT3SKS' 
Practical Guide Coat Patterns, 

FOR MORNING COAT, LOUNGE, REEFER & FROCKS. 







a 


Loccge. 


M'TDI-Lg OoSt. 


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a 


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f f 


c 






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• 


" 




a 


4 * 


c 

P cr 


1 


; 

cr 


I 


c 
c 
& 



£ 

a 










" x 




1 




"* 


2 


32 


28 


*\ 


16 


58 


18 ; 314 


64 


30 i 


H 


114 


154 


34 


30 


*B 


16} 


284 


184 


32 


6j 


31 | 


7& 


12 


1C4 


36 


32 


3 


17 


29 


19 


324 


7 i 


32 


8 


124 


17 


38 


34 


W 


171 


294 


m 


33 


n 


33 


H 


13 


17* 


40 


37 


ya 


173 


30 


192 


33 4 


8 


334 


9 


134 


1*1 


42 


39 J 


104 


18 


304 


20 


34 


»i 


334 


94 


14 


194 


44 


42 


104 


18* 


31 


20* 


34 


Bj 


34 


10 


144 


20 


46 


46 


loj 


18j 


314 


204 


344 


9 


34 


104 


16* 


21 


48 


50 


n 


184 


32 


204 


344 


9* 


34 


11 


16 


22 


50 


54 


"* 


184 


32 


204 


35 


94 


34 


114 


16$ 


23 



Length of Frock coats abont 3 inches longer than Morning coats. 

Single Pattern, Is. ; Set of 7, 5s. ; or the complete set of 10, 7s. 6d 

Post Free. 



The New Set of Trouser Patterns. 

By the Prize Eseayist in the late Trouser Cutting Competition. 



No. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
6 



want ieM knee bottom lop No. ssiii (eat knee bottom itp 



124 
13 
13f 
14 
15 
6 15 
64 16 



13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
18 



144 

154 

16 

16* 

17 

174 

17 



144 23 
154 25 
16 27 

16 

17 
17 



7 I64 

8 174 

9 I84 

28 I 10 20 

29 ! 11 22 
31 12 23 



19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



18 

184 

19 

194 

20 

21 



174 32 

18 32 
184 3 ? 

19 31 
19 31 
19 81 



17 31 13 26 254 214 194 31 



One pattern lOd. ; set of 4, 2/8 ; set of 8, 4/- ; the set com- 
plete of 14, 6/10, post free. 

Perfect Fitting Trousers, 



In 6 sizes 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 



28 waist 
30 do. 



32 
34 
36 
38 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



34 seat 

36 do. 
38 do. 
40 do. 

37 do. 
42 do. 



30 leg ; 

31 do. 

32 do. 

31 do. 

33 do. 

32 do. 



17 knee 

18 do. 
18$ do. 
I84 do. 
17.a do. 
18* do. 



17 bottom. 

18 do. 

18 do. 
18$ do. 
174 do. 

19 do. 



These Patterns are supplied at lOd. each, or 4/- the set of 6, 
post free. 

LINEN SHIRTS. 

Patterns of the above are supplied, cut proportionate to 
the 30 to 42 breast measure. Price lOd. each, or 4/6 the set 
of 7, post free. 

Flannel Shirts. 

Are aUo supplied, cut to the same measures, and at the same 
prices. 

BICYCLE SUITS. 

Our Patterns of gents' Bicycling Suits — Tunic and Breeches 
— are specially adapted to this fast growing depaitment of 
bespoke tailoring, Tunics, set of 4, 2/6 ; Breeches, set of 4, 
2/6. Single Patterns lOd. each, post free. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



New Electro Blocks for Advertising Purposes. 




They will prove a great boon to every enterprising tailor. Each blook is oopper faoed We are supplying them at a very low figure, 

viz. : 3/6 each ; i for 12/- ; 8 for £1. 



The Tailor and Cutter Business Notices. 

Summary of Articles supplied at the " Tailor and Cutter " Office, details of which will be. 
found in the pages of Chart and Catalogue, which will be sent on receipt of stamp for postage. 



PATTERNS— Models. 

Gents' Coats 
„ Trousers lOd. 
„ Vests 5d 

„ Ulsters, &c. 1/2 

Ladies' jackets 10d 
„ Overgarments 1/2 
„ Habit & Train 2/6 

Juvenile Dress 1/2 



lOd. each, set (7), 4/3 
4/3 
2/3 
5/3 

4/3 

5/3 

,, (4) 7/6 

3/3 



PATTERNS — Special to Customers' measures 

Gents' Coats, Trousers, Ladies' 



Ri- 



Jackets 
Ladies' Overgarments 
„ Foundation Skirt, 

ding Train .. .. 2/- 

Juvenile Suits . . ..1/8 

Military patterns, Cassocks, &c. 1/8 



1/2 each 

1/7 „ 



CUTTING ACADEMY. 



Terms of Tuition : 1 month . . .£5 

2 „ .. 10 

,, ., 3 „ .. 12 10 

Send penny stamp for our " Mode of 

Procedure." 



SHEARS. 



The Tailob and Cutteb Sheabs : 



No. 1 — 124 inches 
„ 2-13 
„ 8-134 
» 4—14 
„ 5—144 
„ 6-16 



£1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 



Seymoub's Amebican Sheabs, with ad- 
justable lever, spring and bolt. 
No. 3 — Hi inches 



„ 4-124 
„ 5—13 
„ 6-134 
„ 7-14 
„ 8-14* 
„ 9—15 

Hebald Levee Sheabs. 

No. 1—12 inches ... £17 6 

„ 2—13 „ ... 1 12 6 

3—14 ., ... 2 4 

„ 4—15 ';, ... 2 15 



£1 

14 

1 12 

1 16 

2 
2 4 
2 8 



TRIMMERS. 










Seymoub's Tbimmebs. 




Straight Handles 


— 8 inches 


. 5/- 


19 


» 


9 „ 


. 


. 6/- 


11 


91 


10 „ 


. 


. 8/- 


»» 


19 


11 „ 


. 


. 10/- 


Bent Handles 


-9 „ 


. 


. 7/- 


,i 


91 


10 „ 


. 


8/6 


ii 


99 


11 „ 


. 


. 10/- 




II 


12 ., 


. 


. 11/- 




Heinisoh's Make. 




Straight Handles 


—1—6 inch. 


2/3 


1, 


91 


2—64 


99 • 


2/6 


•• 


91 


3—7 


99 • 


2/9 


„ 


!9 


4—74 


99 • 


. 3/- 




19 
11 


6—8 

6-84 

7-9 


99 * 
99 • 


! 3f8 
4/- 




11 


8—10 


11 • 


4/6 


ii 




9—11 




6/- 


ii 


11 


10—12 


♦1 * 


5/9 




11 


11—13 


11 • 


6/6 


Bent Handles 


1—7 


11 • 


2/9 




19 


2—74 




3/- 




11 


3—8 


.1 


8/6 






4—84 


99 •• 


4/- 




j. 


5—9 




4/6 






6—10 


91 • 


5/- 


n 


11 


7—11 


91 •" 


5/9 




11 


8—12 


'1 * ' 


6/6 


n 


11 


9—13 

10—14 




7/3 
8/- 



Postage 3d. extra. 

Button-nole Scissors, Board Scissors, ice. 
of improved make at lowest trade prices. 



TRODSER STRETCHER. 

The simplest, cheapest, and most effec 
tive Trouper stretcher yet invented 
Special price to the trade 12/- per doz 
Carriage forward. 

STOYES. 

THE NEW TAILOBS' STOVE. 

The Big Ben— for 10 irons inside, and 10 
to 12 outside. Width 31 in. Price 66/-. 

Old Ben— Width 34 inches, of greater 
capacity. Price 75/- 

The Improved Atmospheric Gas Stove 
—for 1 iron 9/- ; 2 irons 18/- ; 8 irons 
27/- ; 4 irons 36/- ; 5 irons 45/- ; 6, 54/-. 

Improved pattern Gas Stove, with sepa- 
rate burner for each iron. To heat 1 
iron 12/6 ; 2 irons 20/- ; 4 irons 35/- ; 
6 irons 55/-. 

IRONS. 

BROAD FACED TAILOBS' IBONS. 
No. 8— 101b, 2/10 No. 11— 16tt>, 4/- 
No. 9— 131b, 8/2 No. 12— 191b, 4/9 
No. 10— 141b, 3/6 No. 13— 20tb,5/- 
No. 14— 221b, 6/-. 

SLEEYE BOARDS. 

A large assortment of these boards, the 
wood oarefully selected and the boards 
specially made for ourselves, are now 
on view at The Tailob and Cutteb 
Office. Our Sleeve Boards are supplied 
in 7 different sizes as follows : — each 
is 27 inches long. 

No. 1 — 5 by 3 size at ends 

2— 6 by 3 

3— 7 by 4 



8 by 5 

5— 8 by 6 

6— 9 by 7 

Board for Trousers 10 by 8 „ 



3/6 
3/9 

4/- 
4/4 
4/6 
4/8 
5/- 



CRAYONS. 

We supply Tailors' Crayons of the very 
best quality only. Price 2/- per box. 
Free by Parcel Post 9d. extra. 
Pencil Gbayons of a special make are 
also supplied. Price 44d. each or 4/- 
per doz. Postage forone,ld. ; doz. 3d. 
CBAYON HOLDEB. — Combination Crayon 
Holder and Tracing Wheel — a wonderful 
economiser, by means of which the small- 
est pieces of clay can be used. — Price, 
highly nickle plated, 2/6 ; post free,2/8. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

The Tailob and Cutteb— Weekly, 
Price 2d., post free 24d. ; annual sub- 
scription 10/-. 

The Tailob and Cutteb and Lon- 
don Abt Joubnal— Monthly. Price 
1/-, post free 1/2 ; annual subscription 
14/. 

The Ladies' Tailob— Monthly. Price 
9d., post free lOd. ; annual subscription 
10/-. 

WORKS ON CUTTING. 

Send penny stamp for our Illustrated 
Catalogue. 

PLATES OF FASHION. 

The Tailob and Cutteb Bi-annual 

Plate of London Abt Fashions, 

published February and August ; 314 

by 224 inches. Coloured, 6/9 post free. 

Plain 68 „ 

The Tailob and Cutteb Plate of 
Bbitish Livebies. Price, coloured, 
12/3. Uncoloured 6/3. 

MlLITABY AND NAVAL PLATES— Two 
splendid coloured Plates are now avail- 
able, representing the uniforms of the 
British Army and Navy. Price 32/- 
each, post free. 

The above are works of art which should 
appear in every Tailors' Show Boom 



SQUARES. 



24 by 27, nicely bevelled 4 9 

27 by 18 „ 4 

24 by 24 „ 4 

24 by 18 „ 3 6 

27 by 27 „ 6 6 

Graduated Squares 7 6 

Registered Curved Square 4 6 

Diagram Square, 6 by 6 2 

Registered Brass Diagram Square and 

Aliquot Part Finder 3 6 

Postage 3d. extra. 
These Squares are all made of the finest 
materials, and have been specially manu- 
factured for ou/selves, 

TBOUSEB Cubves. 

Best quality 2 6, 3 

Stbaight Edges. 

| inch wide, 18 long 6 

Post free 8 

14 inch wide, brass ends 1 8 

Post free 1 10 

Flat Yabd Sticks. 

14 inch wide ... 8d., Is., and 1 

Postage 3d. extra, unless otherwise stated. 

" ECLAIR BUTTON MAKING MACHINE. 

Simpler in operation, produces more per- 
fect buttons, and is cheaper, than any 
Button Making Machine ever offered to 
the Public. Price 21/-. Moulds from 
1/- per gross. 

TAPES. 

GRADUATED TAPES. 

These Registered Graduated Tapes are 

supplied only at The Tailob and 

Cutteb office. The tapes are 30 in 

number. Prices : 

The 1st quality, printed on one side only 7 '6 

Second quality 6/- 

The 1st quality, printed on both sides 3/9 

Second quality 3/- 

Printed on stiff paper 1/fl 

Postage 3d. extra. Each set of Tapes le 
accompanied by a 

Treatise on Graduation, 
Which includes systems for Coats, Vests 
and Trousers, by Dr. Humphreys. This 
Treatise is a kind of MULTUM IN PABVO, 
containing as it does, much useful infor- 
mation in practical cutting. It is sold se 
parately at 1/-, but is given with each set 
of tapes, without charge. 

The old or ordinary Graduated Tapes, 

Are still supplied at the Tailor and Cutter 
Office. First quality 5/-. Second quality 
3/6. Postage 3d. extra. These also are 
accompanied by a Treatise. 

Common Inch and other Tapes. 

Narrow Inch, 2d. 

Common Inch, 1st quality, 3d. 

Common Inch, brass tips, 1st quality, 4d. 

Common Inch, with looped end for trouseri 

and sleeve measuring, 4d. 
The Centimetre Tape, with decimal scale. 

Continental stamp, 3d. 
The Right-hand Tape, with figures erect, 

for Cutting Board, 3d. 
The Leather Tape, very excellent, 7d. 
The Trouser Tape, with 2 inch brass end 

to fit in fork, 4d. 
The Upright Tape, with small brass thumb 

piece, 3d. 
The Assorted Dozen, including all tape 

measures used by the trade in the Cutting 

Room or in the shop, 2/-, post free 2/6. 
Single tapes, postage Id. extra to above 

prices; 2 forl4d.; 4 for 2d.; 1 doz. 4d. extra 

ADVERTISING BLOCKS. 

Illustrating New and Popular styles in 
Ladies' Gents' and Juvenile Garments 
from 4/6 each. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



Graduated Tapes and Squares. 



Graduated Tapes. 



It ia dow clearly proved that Graduated Tapes as hitherto 
published, do not produce correct patterns for all sizes of 
figures, as it is well known that the human form, as it increases 
ia bulk does not increase in the same ratio all over the body. 
The invention embodied in these tapes meets these requirements. 
Neither the sizes below 36 nor the sizes larger, are in the same 
proportion as the 36 breast. The 36 breast graduated to a lad 
of 30 breast would be too small in the scye and shoulder ; 
besides the same amount being required for the making up, 
seams, buttons, &c, there is not tin same space for the gar- 
ment to give, as all garments do, more or less when buttoned. 
On the other hand, graduation, pure and simple, applied to the 
larger figures, such as 42 and 44, produces a garment invariably 
too large in the scye and shoulders and too small in the breast. 
To meet this, the exact ratio of increase and decrease has been 
arrived at in these tapes, after many years of high class ex- 
perience of measuring thousands of customers. 

These Registered Graduated Tapes are supplied only at 
The "Tailor and Cutter" Office. The Tapes are 
30 in number. Prioes of Tapes : 

The first quality, in the ordinary painted form, 
printed on one side only ... ... ... 

Second quality 

The first quality printed on both sides ... 

Second quality 

Printed on stiff paper ... ... ... 



7/6 

6/- 
3/9 

•3/- 
1/6 



Postage 3d. extra. Each set of Tapes is accompanied by a 

Treatise on Graduation. 

Which includes systems for Coats, Vests and Trousers. This 
Treatise is a kind of Multtjm in Pabvo, containing as it does, 
much useful information in practical cutting. It is sold sepa- 
rately at 1/-, but is given with each set of tapes, without 
charge. 



The Old or Ordinary Graduated Tapes. 

Are still supplied at The Tailor and Cutter Office. First Qua 
litt 5b.— Second Quality 3s. 6d. Postage 3d. extra. Thee* 
also are accompanied by a Treatise. 

Measuring Tapes. 



Narrow Inoh ad. 

Common Inch, lHt quality .. 8d. 

Common Inch, braes tips, 1st quality 4d. 
Common laoh, with looped end for 

trousers and sleeve measuring 4d 

The Centimetre Tape, with decimal 

scale, Continental stamp . . 8d 

The Bight Hand Tape, with figures 

erect, for Catting Board . . 3d. 

The Leather Tape, very excellent 7d. 



The Ttonser Tape, with 2 inoh brass 

end to fit in fork 
The Upright Tape, with email brass 

thumb piece .. .. 8d. 

CHE ASSOBTED DOZEN, including 

all tape measures used bj the trade ix 

the Cutting Boom or in t hi Shop. 2- 

post free 2s 6d. 



Tailors' Squares. 



Squares. 

24 by 27 nicely bevelled, 4/9 

27 by 18 do. 4/- 

24 by 24 do. 4/- 

24 by 18 do.' 3/6 

27 by 27 do. 5/6 

Diagram Squares. 

Brass 3/6 

In Leather Case ... 4/- 

Electro-Plated ... 5/- 
Brass Registered Solid 

Pocket Square 3/6 



2/- 



6 by 6, bevelled edge, 

Trouser Curves. 
Brass ends ... 2/6 3/6 

Straight Edges. 
£ inch wide, 18 long, 6d. 

post free, 8d. 
li inch wide brass ends, 8d 
post free, lOd. 

Flat Yard Sticks. 
1£ inch wide, 8d., 1/-, 1/3 



Postage Zd. extra unless stated otherwise. 

These squares are all made of the very finest box wood, and 
have been specially manufactured for ourselves. 



Tailors' Crayons. 



Tailors' Crayons of the very best quality only, 
box. Free by Parcel Post 9d. extra. 



Price 2/- per 



Combination Crayon Holder & Tracing Wheel. 






An adjunct to the Cutting board ranking in value 
second only to the shears. 

A wonderful economiser, for by its means the smallest 
piece of clay can be used with the power and freedom 
of a whole cake. 

One piece will last three times as long as is usually 
the case. 

Perfectly simple in adjustment, handy in shape, and 
size, and can easily be carried in the waistcoat pocket. 

The points of the wheel are entirely protected when 
not in use and can be brought into action by turning a 
screw with the finger and thumb. 

The wheel in no way interferes with its utility as a 
crayon-holder. 

The price does not exceed that of an ordinary tracing 
wheel. 

it protects the crayon from breakage. It is a safeguard against waste. 

It preserves the crayon from dirt. It is a security againt annoyance. 

The Combination Crayon-holder and Tracing Wheel is beautifully finished, the edges 
oeing carefully bevelled and the whole highly nickel-plated. It is now being offered at the 
low price of 2/6, or free by post 2/8. To prevent disappointment order without delay. 
The John Williamson Company LMftfit 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 






— ssm™™ 



Graduated and Other Squares. 



The Diagram Square, Art Curve, 

and Aliquot Part Finder. 

We have now completed arrangements for the supply of the 
above, and we feel sure it will prove of almost unlimited 
service to the trade generally, and especially so to the young 
and aspiring portion of it. As a 

Diagram Square 

It possesses all the advantages of the ordinary square, with 
the addition of having one side curved in the same way as a 
full size trouser stick, so that it can be used for drawing dia- 
grams in precisely the same way as the trouser stick is used for 
full size patterns. In addition to this it is absolutely unbreak- 
able, being made from brass ; which enables it to be made much 
thinner, and so be of more use in drawing the lines with greater 
accuracy, whilst the additional weight of the brass prevents 
the liability wood has of shifting. On one side it has the 




ordinary £ scale, whilst on the other it has a one-twelfth, £, 
h $• i< scales, from 12 to 24, so that the Student can draw his 
diagrams to either of these scales, as he may require, and thus 
do away with the necessity of having a separate square for 
eaoh scale. As an 

PRICES : 

3/6 brass; in leather ease 4/-; electro-plated 5/-. 



NEW 



Make of Tailors Squares 



REGISTERED No. 44. 



There are in us 3 many dif - - 
ferent kinds or makes of 
squares ; but hitherto, none 
have come up to our idea of 

what a convenient make of tailors' square ought to be, 
the common make is a weak jointed, one sided, clumsy 
kind of a thing, often getting out of the square, and, 
owing to the weight of useless timber, the joints give 
' way. A few years since, we arranged a 
square, and had one made for our own 
private and special use. Students and others 
have seen the square in use, and expressed 
a desire to possess a copy of it. We had 
a number made to oblige oar friends ; no soon- 
er were they seen, than orders for the new 
make of square came in from many quarters. 
The square is fast jointed, finished alike on both 
sides ; and the edges being bevelled will admit of 
much greater exactness in making the different 
divisions than is possible by the thick edge of the 
old make of squares. The short arm is 12 
inches long, and the other 21 inches ; the inner 
edge being nicely curved, which is suited for 
pleats, waist seam of skirts, and many parts of 
a garment where the same kind of a curved 
line is found. For trousers cutting, the new 
make of square is speoially adapted for shaping 
the seams by a clean free curve ; and in se- 
curing a nice front and fork seam. We have made spe- 
cial arrangements with a first-class firm of square 
makers, whioh enables us to supply them at a price with 
in the reach of all. 

Price 4/6. Postage 3d. 
The John Williamson Com- 
, — ^' .-■— < pany Limited, 93 & 94 Dru- 
4*U3lU4!4-l ry Lane, London, W C. 




M 



Graduated Squares. 




This ingenious arrangement is intended to combine the advantages of a 
set of graduated tapes in one handy instrument, and there is no doubt it 
answers its purpose admirably. It is arranged so that measuring from a 
given point you can find the divisions required for every breast measure, 
to find all the points in every kind of garment, the only variation necessary 
being that, instead of using the quantities 2^, 3, 4^, 6, 9, 12 and so on, the 
cutter will have to turn to the divisions marked £, one sixth, £, £, \ or § 
and then mark off opposite the numbers agreeing with the breast measure he 
s cutting for. Thus practically sim- ^^^,^ ^ ^sss^w^ w ^^wim™- » 
plifying the method of graduation very || ^|1 

considerably. The square is made of ^^^fc 
the very best material, and every divi- |||| ~ rl|l|Ll 

sion marked with the greatest possi- 
ble care, so that strict accuracy may ||| 
be fully relied on. 

PRICE 7s. 6d. POST FREE 

Th« John Williamson Companv Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C 



Button Machine, Tailors' Stoves, k 



The "Eclair" 

(By Royal Letters Patent.) 



Gold Medal, 

Bronze Medal, 

Paris Exhibition, 

1889. 




Button Making 



MACHINE, 



Gold Medal, 

Bronze Medal, 

Algiers Exhibition 

1889. 



The " Eclair '' Button Making Machine is simpler in operation, produces more perfect buttons, and is cheaper, than any Button Making 
Machine ever offered to the Public. 

It is of the utmost value to Tailors, Dressmakers, Outfitters, Upholsterers, dec, enabling them quickly to make buttons of any size, with any 
material desired. With each machine are supplied 3 steel cutters, of different sizes, 3 guages to correspond with the cutters, cutting block 
holder, and iron and wood pegs, all enclosed in a neat hardwood box, 3?HRyIO^Ej 21/—. 

Extra guages and cutters for buttons up to 60 lines can be supplied at prices varying with the size required. 

Button Moulds (Shanks and Cups.), Black or Bright, at from 1/- per gross. 

TO BE HAD OF THE JOHN WILLIAMSON COMPANY LIMITED, 

93 & 91 DRURY LANE, LONDON, W. C. 




The Leamington Stove. 



u 



The Atmospheric " Gas Stove. 




Patent Smokeless Burners, con- 
half the amount of an ordinary 
Gas Stove. No smell, no smoke, 
no fixing. 

Price, 1 hole, 9/-; 2, 18/-; 
3, 27/- J 4, 36/-. 

LARGEST SIZES TO ORDER. 



Specially suitable for burning Coal, Wood or Charcoal 

Small size (as Drawiag) Oven 16x12x12 ... 60/- 

Medium ... Oven 21x13x13 ... 90/- 

Large, (as Drawing) Oven 31x13x13 ... 150/- 

The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



Fashion Tailors' Stove. 



No fixing, burns any fuel, placed in 
operation in a few minutes ; cost for 
burning, lHd. per week ; will hold 10 
irons. 

PRICE 37/6. 
Larger sizes £2 1 5s., £3 3s,, & £3 1 5s. 



Black Lead Pencil Crayons. 

We have made special arrangements with the manufacturer 
of the finest and most durable Pencil Crayons that are made. 
The lead is of the best quahty, and the finish, both of the 
crayon itself and of the wood in which it is encased, is every- 
thing that the most fastidious could desire. 

Single Crayons 6d. ; per doz. 4/6, post free. 




THE PICK OF THE SHEAR MARKET 




THE 

Herald Lever Shears. 

The lever pulls the blade 

quite half an inch back 

through the cloth during 

the process of cutting, 

hereby combining the or- 

dinary 

action 

of the 

S h e ars 

with that 

of a 
~*\ n i f e I 




The Tailor and Cutter Shears. 

The best in the market for ease and com- 
fort in outting ; durability, and excel- 
ence of finish. Specially manufactured 
for the "Tailor and Catter" office. 





H. Seymour & Co.'s Patent Shears. 

Advantages of the adjustable Level Spring and 
Bolt :— No more loose bolts ; easily taken apart 
to clean, or sharpen ; adjustable to run tight 01 
loose. Cutting power increased. Eequire sharp 
ening less often. Edges kept together without 
pressure on the handles 



Heinisch's Shears and Trimmers. 

Having made a special arrangement with Messrs. 
Heinisch's English representative we are enabled to 
supply these renowned American Shears and Trim- 
mers at exceptionally low prices. They always 
give satisfaction. 



Sizes and Prices of Shears 


. 


Herald Lever 
Shears. 


Seymours 
Shears. 


Heinisch's 
Shears. 


Special Line. 
A good useful 


in. £ s. d 


in. £ a. d 


in. £ s. d 


and cheap 


12 17 6 


11£ 10 


12 15 


Shear 


13 1 12 6 


12i 14 


12$ 10 


(with rest) 


14 2 4 


13 1 It 


13 12 6 




15 2 15 


13.J 1 16 


13| 1 12 6 


12 12 6 




14 2 


14 2 


13 18 6 




14^ 2 4 


14| 2 4 


14 16 




15 2 8 


15| 2 10 


15 1 12 6 


Tailor & Cutter 


Trimmers. 


Trimmers. 


Button-hole 




STRAIGHT. 


STRAIGHT. 


Scissors, 


12£ 14 
13 17 6 


8 .. 5 

9 .. 6 


9 .. 4 
10 .. 4 6 


made of the 


13J 1 10 


10 .. 8 


12 .. 5 9 


finest steel, in 


14 1 12 6 


11 .. 10 


13 .. 6 6 


all the most 


14* 1 16 6 


BENT. 


BENT. 


useful sizes. — 


15 2 


9 .. 7 
10 .. 8 6 


9 .. 4 6 
10 .. 5 


See Chart for 




11 .. 10 


12 .. 6 6 


prices and par- 




12 .. 11 


13 .. 7 3 


ticulars. 






The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



ABRIDGED CATALOGUE, 

CONTAINING ABRIDGED NOTICES OF THE WORKS PUBLISHED AT THE "TAILOR 

AND CUTTER" OFFICE. 

Our larger Catalogue, giving details of each work, can be had from the " Tailor 
and Cutter" Office on receipt of stamp for postage. 



THE CUTTERS' 

Practical Guide 

TO 

CUTTING EVERY KIND OF GARMENT 

MADE BY TAILORS. 
With cop'ous hints on their production 

Containing Svstems for all kinds and styles of 
Juvenile, Youths, and Young Men's Garments, 
Including Jackets, Coats in all their Styles. 
Vests, Trousers, Breeches, Surplices, Cassocks, 
and many other Special G«ments, the Syt terns 
of which are equally applicable to Gent's Gar- 
ments. . „-..., 
Illustrated by upwards of 100 Original 
Figures, expressly designed for this work, and 
nearly 200 Diagrams showing the practical 
application of the system. The whole form- 
ing one of the most complete works on the art 
of "cutting ever offered to the trade. 
Handsomely b ound 15/-. Post free 15/3 

Part Two of above Work 

EMBRACING 

Body Coats of every Description, 

Including Morning, Lounge, Frock and 

Dress Coats. Livery, Clerical, Mili- 
tary, Naval, Police and many 
other Special Garments. 

As most of our readers are aware, Part One 
of this work has already appeared, in which 
the System is adapted more particularly to 
Youths' and Juvenile Garments. This Part, 
as will be seen by the above title, embraces 
Body Coats of every description, not only 
those in ordinary wear, but all other garments 
which every respectable firm is liable to be 
called upon to make. 

The Practical Guide System is well-known, 
and needs no words of commendation from us. 

The work is got up uniform with Part One. 
the same clear and bold type, on a superior 
ore am coloured paper, 

Price 10s. 

IN ONE VOLUME, 
THE CUTTERS' 

Practical Guide Systems. 

SPECIAL NOTICE! 

We are arranging to supply 

The Cutter's Practical Guide, Part 1, 

Juvenile & Youths' Garments — Price 15/-. 

The Cutter's Practical Guide, Part 2, 

All kinds of Body Coats.— Price 10/-, 

National Prize Essay Trousers System, 

Price 9/-. 

Bound together in one handsome volume 

(bevelled boards), price 30/-. 



NEW WORK. 

THE 

Cutter's Practical Guide 

TO THE CUTTING OF 

LADIES' TAILOR-MADE GARMENTS. 

Embracing all the New and Current Styles of 

Ladies' Garments now being made in the best 

tailoring firms. 

Unlike other works on Cutting, a work on 
Ladies' Garments mutt be renewed every two, 
or at most, three years ; such are the material 
changes which ,take place in ladies' attire. We 
have so often been solicited to prepare and 
publish a work on Ladies' Garments by the 
" Cutters' Practical Guide Systems," that we 
feel sure very many of our patrons will hail 
the work now it has been completed. In the 
complete form in which it is got up, it has 
proved to be an undertaking of considerable 
magnitude. It will be found not only the 
most complete, but the most beautifully illus- 
trated Work on Ladies' Garments ever pub- 
lished, containing as it does many illustrative 
figures, showing the new and latest styles, and 
produced in the highest class of Art ; and the 
systems given show bow these are produced. 
Science and, Fashion are thus combined 
throughout. 

This Work is got up in first-class styb, the 
diagrams and illustrative figures being all 
beautifully engraved in the highest class of 
Art, and printed on excellent quality of toned 
paper, bound in cloth and gilt For such a 
work, it is supplied at the lowest possible price 

10/-, Post free, 10/3. 

The Artof Tryiag-Onand 

FITTING, 

Seingaseriesor Practical Illustrations 
from his own Experience. 

BY " UN TAILLEUR." 

IS ever before has so much light been thrown 
lpon what is really and truly the practical 
part of Cutting ; no Cutter of limited experi- 
ence should be without this work. It is made 
lp of a series of actual cases of fitting-oa in 
;he Author's own practice. The reader is 
iaken into the author's Cutting Room on a 
large number of occasions, when garments are 
being fitted on ; the defects in a great variety 
it cases are pointed out, and the remedy, 
illustrated by beautifully engraved diagrams, 
pointed out. As the experience of every cufc- 
ior has taught him — fitting on a garment is no 
guarantee that it will ultimately fit. There ia 
frequently more art in chalking eSeotive 
iterations than in cutting the garment in the 
first place. As a practical guide for all oat' 
ters, this work is invaluable. 

Price 7/6. post free 7/9. 



OUR NEW WORK. 

On Disproportion, 

PART FOUR OF THE 

Students' Practical Guide to Curing. 

This work long asked for and promised, his 
proved an undertak ng of much greater magni- 
tude than we could have anticipated ; nor could 
anyone not actually concerned w. its produc- 
tion, estimate the amount of time, care and 
attention involved — first on the put of the 
author in mentally conceiving its ground-wore 
and scope ; and secondly, r-n the p*rt of thk 
Artistic editor in directing the aitist in the 
production of such illustrations as will cor- 
rectly represent not only all the ordinary, and 
a goodly number of the EXTRA-ordinary 
cases of Disproportion, which present them- 
selves to be clothed, but many real cases of 
Malformati on. 

No work has ever appeared whioh has reat- 
ed this subject from an artistic as well as prac- 
cal point of view. The sixteen beautifully 
engraved Plates which constitute the leading 
feature of the work, form a Series of OBJECT 
LESSONS — the illustrative Figures and the 
Diagrams whicn show the necessary alterations 
appearing on the same Plate ; while the whole 
subject is fully discussed, both from a prac- 
tical and scientific point or view in the letter- 
press. A glance at the Plates will show at 
once the artistic merit brought to bear on tbeir 
production. 

These types of Disproportion and Malfor- 
mation, all illustrated upon figures, got up in 
the highest class of art, will convey to our rea- 
ders some idea of the magnitude of this under- 
taking, each type being further illustrated by 
beautifully engraved Diagrams showing the 
deviation* required for each from the normal 
pattern. Suuh a wcik as this is not only the 
product of considerable time and labour, but 
also of expense ; but as usual the work is pro- 
duced at the lowest possible figure, and it ia in 
anticipation of a larg« demand, that we put the 

Price at 10/-, post free 10/3 

Systems for Coats 

VESTS, TROUSERS AND SHIRTS 
IN THE FORM OF A SERIES OF LESSONS. 

LESSON l.— Coat System. 

LESSON 2. — Disproportion. 

LESSON 3. — Overcoats. 

LESSON 4. — Trousers System. 

LESSON 6.— Vest System. 

LESSON 6.— Shirt System. 
These Lessons are each handsomely got up m a 
pair of cases, beautifully ornamented in g>lt, and 
■o arranged that they can be forwarded by post 
to any part of the United Kingdom, post free 
on receipt of 

3/6 each Lesson, 

NOTE.— Lessons ONE, TWO and THREE 
being the Coat System complete, can be had, 
together, in one pair of cases, price 8/6. The 
Series of Five Lessons, containing Coat, Vest, 
and Trousers System for 12/6. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



ABRIDGED CATALOGUE. 



Art and Style The Art of Cutting by Dr. Humphreys' Works 



IN CUTTING AND MAKING 

FROCKS, REEFERS, LOUNGES, &c. 

Being the product of many eminent 

practical Cutters. 

FORMING A 

Highly Instructive & Valuable Treatise. 

The combined wisdom of upwards of fifty 
leading cutters is laid down in Essay Compe- 
titions, showing their plans of meeting dispro- 
portion, the methods they adopt to hide the 
deformities of their customers ; how they have 
rsade men with humps on their backs present- 
able ; how they altered the appearance of men 
with shoulders of various shapes ; and made 
them all appear nearer the ideal image of man 
than their own misshapen bodies indicated. 

Besides, all this, style has received very able 
treatment the many varieties being clearly 
defined, the special features to be observed in 
producing each to perfection explicitly laid 
down, and many little " wrinkles " of the most 
useful nature explained. 

The various methods of manipulation are 
fully explained, consequently making this 
work a most useful and valuable addition to 
our trade literature. 

It also contains a number of beautifully 
Engraved Diagrams, illustrating the various 
features dealt with. 

Price 7/6. Post free, 7/9. 

Economy in Cutting, 

THIRD EDITION. 

At this time when competition runs so high, 
and prices must be cut so fine, it has become 
forcibly impressed upon us, that a work might 
very advantageously be devoted to ECONOMY 
IN CUTTING. We had little difficulty in 
selecting an author of thorough practical ex- 
perience for this work, Mr. Falconer having 
devoted special attention to the matter of 
Economy. Many of our readers will recollect 
that when some years ago we offered a prize 
for the best and most economical " lays," Mr. 
Falconer carried off the First Prize. We are 
satisfied no one is better qualified to reduce 
the whole subject of Economy to a system 
adaptable toevery garment or series of garments, 
which are to be cut out of the same material, 
at the same time. The completeness with 
which Mr. Falconer has done his work will be 
found in the fact of its containing no less than 
Thiety Plates illustbating differ- 
ent Lays. 

Ranging from one to four garments on each 

lay or illustration. 

Price 7/6. Post free, 7/9. 

Dr. Wampen's Systems 

And Works, as adapted for 
Daily Practice. 

By MR. R. WILLIAMSON. 

This work contains all that is of practioal 
value to the Cutter in Wampen's Works. 

There are comparatively very few Cutters 
of the present day who know anything more of 
Dr. Wampen than as a name of great repute— 
a kind of Shakespeare in Cutting. As is well 
known, the Doctor's works during late years 
cannot be procured at any price ; and when 
procured, they are few indeed who have either 
the time or the patience to study them suffi 
ciently so as to turn them to any practnal 
account. Still, as the Docter's works contain a 
mine of wealth in the way of sound basis and 
principles for cutting. The difficulty in the 
way of their practical application has now been 
overcome. 

Price 7/6. Post Free 7/9. 



MODEL PATTERNS. 

By Mr. Falconer 
All who cut by Block or Model Patterns — 
and they are now a largely increasing number 
— should procure this very elaborate and 
highly instructive work. The increasing num- 
ber of those who use Model Patterns is doubt- 
less due in a large measure to the reliability, 
both in fit and style, of the patterns supplied 
at the Tailor and Cutter Office ; but still these 
Patterns are necessarily adapted to proportion- 
ate or ordinarily well made figures, while the 
Art of Cutting consists in adapting a 
pattern to any customer's form of the same 
breast measure. It is but a minority, we fear 
of those who cut by Model Patterns that are 
capable of doing so. Here, then, is a work 
prepared expressly for those who cannot adapt 
their Model Patterns as we have described. 
Such a work, we repeat, should be in the hands 
of everyone vrho uses Model Patterns. 

Price 7/6. Post free, 7/9. 

POLYTECHNIC 

Coat System. 

Embracing the experience of 35 years, 
as Cutter, Teacher and Author ; includ- 
ing also all ideas of practical value which have 
app eared in his pre vious works, setforth in 
the simplest and most practical form 

The exhaustive manner in which each sub- 
ject brought under notice is discussed, makes 
this work more of an educator than any we 
have hitherto published. It is not simply 
giving so many systems or applications of sys- 
tems to certain garments, but we have here 
everything relating to the cutting and manipu- 
lation of those garments. 

Price 7/6, Post free 7/9. 

POLYTECHNIC 

Vest System. 

With a view of giving completeness to the 
Series of the Doctor's Works, a work on Vests 
has also been prepared, embodying the whole 
subject of Vest Cutting in all variety of styles. 
An especial feature of this work is its em- 
bracing a series of 8 beautifully; engraved 
Plates showing all the new and fashionable 
styles of Vests ; also 5 Plates of Diagrams 
illustrating the System and instructions con- 
tained in the work. 

Price 5/-. Post free, 5/3. 

Critical, Practical, 
AND SYSTEMATICAL 

Coat Cutting. 

As most of our readers are aware, Dr. Hum- 
phreys has been a diligent student of the 
Art and Science of Cutting, and has studied 
minutely the whole range of contemporary 
literature for a period of 35 years. He has 
also taken part in all the leading controversies 
of that period, and has come to be regarded as 
the leading authority on all matters relating to 
Cutting. 

Such a work as this, our readers may easily 
imagine, is the result of no small amount of 
study and labour. No expense has been spared, 
as a glance at the Volume itself will show, in 
getting up the diagrams and work generally in 
excellent form. We are, however, desirous of 
publishing it at a price such as to bring it with- 
in the range of all classes, viz., 

Price 7/6. Post free 7/9. 



In One Complete Volume. 

Now that this Series of Works by the Dr. 
is complete, we have prepared them together 
in one substantial and very handsome volume. 
This embraces the Four Works, particulars of 
which peecede this notice, viz , 

The Polytechnic Coat System. 
Practical, Critical and Systemati- 
cal Coat Cutting. 

The Academy Trouser and other 

Systems. 

The Polytechnic Vest System. 

The value of this volume in its complete 
form will be apparent to al! who can appreciate 
high class Practical Teaching in the Art and 
Science of Cutting. 

Price 28/-, post free 28/9. 



THE LADIES' 

Jacket 

Ulster I Costume Cutter, 

BY JAS. THOMSON. 

Embracing Systems and Instruc- 
tions for producing all the New 
and popular Styles of Ladies' Tai- 
lor made Garments, including 
Jackets, Ulsters, Costumes, Habits, 
Trains, &c. 

So frequently are very material changes 
introduced into the styles of Ladies' Jackets, 
Dolmans, &c, as made by tailors, that no 
standard work could be published upon them 
which would remain of continuous value. 
Hence the demand on almost each returning 
season for a revised Edition, or an entirely 
new work, treating of the latest styles of these 
Garments. 

The Work we now announce is entirely new, 
while the reputation of its Author will be 
sufficient guarantee both as to its complete- 
ness, its reliability and excellence. Thirty-five 
Plates illustrate all the new and popular gar- 
ments now being made in high-class tailoring 
firms, the styles being represented by many 
beautifully engraved figures. 

Price 5/-. Post free, 5/3. 

The School of Art 

EXAMINATIONS. 

BEING THE CANDIDATES' PAPERS, — QUESTIONS 
AND ANSWERS, WHICH FORMED PART OF THE 
EXAMINATIONS HELD AT " THE TAILOR AND 
CUTTER " OFFICE RECENTLY, TO WHICH IS 
ADDED A SUMMARY AND REVIEW BY THE AU- 
THORS OF EACH OF THE SERIES OF QUESTIONS. 

EDITED BY JOHN WILLIAMSON. 

This somewhat extensive work is formed of 
ihe answers of the twelve Candidates for 
honours to the questions in the papers given. 
To the answers of eaoh paper is added a Sum- 
mary and Review of the whole, by the Author 
of the paper, which in each case is highly 
iutere»ting and instructive — the whole forming 
such a compendium of instruction and wisdom, 
as has never been published before in such a 
form. The work itself considerably exceeds in 
bulk what we had anticipated, but we are still 
desirous of bringing it within the reach of all 
our readers. 

Price 4s. 6d. Post free, 4s. 9d. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



ABRIDGED CATALOGUE. 



The Catting Room, Students' Guide e Cutting 



TKOUSEBS 



->X< - 



ITS DUTIES AND ROUTINE, 

Being 1st and 2nd Prize Essays in a recent 
Competition. 

It will be sufficient to state that each of 
these Prize Essays form an exhaustive Treatise 
on the Duties and Routine of the Cuttiny 
Room. The practical importance of this sub 
ject to every member of the cutting profes- 
sion induced as to offer handsome prizes with 
the result of producing two very excellent 
Treatises. 

This work enters into, and treats from a 
thorough practical point of view everything 
relating to cutting room routine, and every- 
thing relating to the working of, and what ia 
required by, first-class tailoring firms. For 
young men aspiring to be Cutters, and Cutte.l 
of limited experience, this book is invaluabla 
as it conveys very faithfully what the dutie 
ind routine of the Gutting Room are. 

Price 6/-. Post free 6/3. 
A NEW SYSTEM 

ENTITLED 

The "Certain System" 

OF COAT CUTTING. 

The author claims, after thirty years prac- 
tice, that it is safe, sure and simple, cannot 
ley.d you astray, is absolutely true. Buy it, 
study it, use it. 

Now Ready, Price 7/6. Post free 7/9. 

The Seven Stars 

COATS&TROUSERS SYSTEMS. 

These comprise two distinct works, the Seven 
Star Coat Systems and the Seven Star Trouser 
Systems. Each work contains seven systems 
in daily practice, by seven eminent Gutters, 
accompanied by what each considers the secret 
of success in the cutting of Coats and Trousers. 
Each of these works met with a large demand 
on their first appearance, and the systems and 
instructions in both works have been very 
highly commended. 

The Seven Star Coat and Trouaer Sys- 
tems, 7/6 each. Post free 7/9 each. 

The two works handsomely bound in one 
volume, price 15/-. Post free, 15/6. 

Fourteen Patterns cut by. the Seven Systems 
4/- extra. 

Work on Modern Liveries 

While preparing the Models for our Pla 
of British Liveries, it occurred to us thfv 
something more was required to enable the 
members of the Tailoring profession both to 
produce and understand the Liveries. This 
we provide in a full and exhaustive Treatise 
on the subject of MODERN British Liveries. 
The wo-k is accompanied with 

Nineteen Plates of Beautifully 
Shaded Diagrams. 

Every minute particular in regard to many 
details connected with this special class of 
garment is set forth in the work, thus enabling 
the tailor to produce any class or style of 
Livery worn at the present time. The work 
forms a necessary and indispensaole companion 
to our New Livery Plate. 

The various details and trimmings of the 
different garments are illustrated upon the 
diagrams, which are drawn to a large scale. 

Price, bound in Cloth, 10/-. 



IN FOUR PARTS. 

The practical adaptation of the System is 
shown by a number of engraved and shadeo 
draughts to the half-inch scale. 

PART ONE shows the system worked as ••> 
Breast Measure System. Price 5/-. Post 
free 5/3. 

PART TWO.— Admeasurement. The 
System of Measuring and how to take the mea- 
sures. Price 5/-. Post free 5/3. 

PART THREE.— O vercoats, Reefehs 
&c. Price 5/-. Post free 5/3. 

PART FOUR.— Treatise on DlSPROPOB 
TION Sixteen engraved Plates constitute tb 
leading feature of the work, forming a Series o' 
OBJECT LESSONS. 

Price 10/-. Post free 10/3. 
The Four Parts complete in one hand- 
somely bound Volume 24/-. Post free 25/- 



NATIONAL 

Average Time Log, 

Being the average of about 50 of the Logs of 
the leading Towns and Cities of the United 
Kingdom. The fullest and most comprehensive 
Log ever published. 

The necessity f or an Uniform Time Log has 
long occupied the attention of the trade. With 
the view of assisting in its introduction, we 
collected all the logs it was possible to procure 
throughout the United Kingdom — and suc- 
ceeded in getting about fifty of those paid in 
the leading cities and towns. 

Price 2/6. post free 2/9. 



Belfast' sCompleteWorks 

IN THREE PARTS. 

Coat System, 3/6. Trouser System 3/6. 
Systems adapted io Ladies' Habits, Jackets 
and Cloaks ; Vests, and Boy's Garments. 

Complete in One Volume, price 12/6, 
Post Free, 13/1. 



NOW READY. 

Tom Jones' Diary, 

BEING A FULL AND 
Practical Realistic Record of a 

SUCCESSFUL TAILORING CAREER, 

From a Provincial Apprentice to a 

West End Cutter & Master Tailor. 

By JOHN WILLIAMSON, 

2 Editor of the " Tailor and Cutter." 

Revised by Z. W. SHAW, 

I Author of the " Jrt of Trying On." 



The object in publishing this Diary is to 
convey to the young and aspiring members of 
our trade, a realistic sketch of the incidents in 
a' Successful Cutter's Career, from his birth 
and apprentice in a provincial town, to his be- 
coming Chief Cutter, and ultimately Master 
of a West End Tailoring Trade. The practi- 
cal knowledge conveyed in regard to each suc- 
cessive stage of advancement, cannot but prove 
invaluable to every Student of Cutting ; while 
it will be found to contain much to interest 
and instruct Cutters of mature experience. 



GREAT NATIONAL 

Work on Tronser Cutting 

THEIR DEFECTS AND CURE. 

The First Prize Essay in a Compettion, for 
a prize of £10, offered by the National Federa- 
tion of Foremen Tailors' Societies, by " Ox- 
onian." This work is thoroughly practical, 
and deals with every phase of Trouser Cutting, 
together with a reliable system, with its adapta- 
tions to all requirements and all styles, as well 
as giving the cause and cure of 47 defects in 
trousers, hints on making, &c, illustrated by 
70 diagrams. 

From those who have put the system to the 
practical test we have received a large number 
of the most flattering testimonials, which gives 
us every confidence in recommending it to all 
who require a thoroughly reliable Trouser 
System which can be readily adapted to meet 
the requirements of the most fastidious, as it is 
based on scientific principles, which have been 
proved correct by hundreds of Cutters in daily 
practice ; as an example, the Nottingham So- 
ciety recently had a Competition, in which they 
cut two pairs of trousers from cloth, when ''the 
Prize trousers carried off the palm, and it was 
agreed by general consent, that the system is 
an excellent one. and deserves hish praise." 

Bound in Cloth 9/-, Paper Covers, 7/6. 
Post free 9/3 and 7/9. 

Academy Trousers and 

Other Systems. 

This is the only work on Trousers Cutting 
recognised by Dr. Humphreys, and is a Work 
which contains the fruit of the Doctor's 35 
years' experience as a Cutter, Teacher, and 
Author. It is not simply a Trousers System 
with Deviations and general remarks on 
Trouser Cutting, but contains a variety of 
systems besides the main Academy System — 
many good, some indifferent, some positively 
defective, and all given with a view of showing 
the good and bad points in Trouser Cutting, 
with the view of enabling the Cutter to accept 
the good and avoid the defective points in 
systems and in Trouser Cutting. 

The various sections of this work are illus- 
trated by 14 beautifully engraved Plates. This 
is doubless the most comprehensive work on the 
whole subject of Trousers Cutting yet pub- 
lished ; the Doctor's many years' experience 
is brought to bear upon every page, the whole 
forming a practical guide for every-day use 
and work. 

Price 7/6. Post free, 7/9. 

Utility Trouser System. 

Including Breeches, Leggings, and Gaiters, con- 
cluding with a Chanter of Critical Observations. 

Price 10/ . Post free 10/6. 

Belfast's Trousers. 

This is tha first work that was published 
at the Tailor and Cutter office, and has been 
in demand since, and found to be a good 
safe syfcteni. 

Price 3/6. Post free 8/7. 

System for Trousers. 

Handsomely got up in a large pair of 
cases, ornamented in gilt, the diagrams 
being on one side ana the matter on the 
other. This is found very convenient iu 
draughting a good reliable system. 
Price 3/6. Post free 3/7. 



Price 3/6. In good binding, gilt letters 5/ . 
The John Williamson Company. Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C 



ABRIDGED CATALOGUE. 



The Seven Stars 

TROU8ERS SYSTEMS. 

The6e are Seven Trousers Systems by se- 
ven eminent Cutters, containing al6o the 
secret of their success. 

Price 7/6, post free 7/9. 

THE PRINCIPLES 

Of Trouser Cutting. 

As illustrated by ten essays, in a competition 
for a prize of £10, together with the methods 
suggested by the essayists for meeting the 
peculiarities and deformities of customers, abo 
the defects and remedies in trousers cutting. 
This work forms the second volume of the 
Great National Work on Trousers, and con- 
tains the cream of experience of ten eminent 
Cutters. 
Price 5/- ; bound in cloth. 6/-. Postage 3d 

STUDENTS' 

Preparatory Instructor 

and Guide. 

Containing also Directions for Self-Tuition. 
BY JOHN WILLIAMSON, Editor of The 

Tailor and Cutter. 

The necesity for such a work as the above 
title indicates, has been strongly impressed 
upcn us for a considerable time. So frequently 
do Students arrive at our Office with little or no 
knowledge whatever of the career upon which 
they have resolved to enter — making the diffi- 
culties that have to be overcome so much 
the greater — it has many times occurred 
to us to prepare a Treatise embodying a 
general outline of a cutter's carrer, for the 
special use of intending Students, so they 
may be able to form some idea of the 
career upon which they anticipate entering. 
This we have now succeeded in doing. 

The Treatise also contains directions whereby 
the intending Student (unassisted) may under- 
go a course of instruction and practice, prepa- 
ratory to his placing himself in the hands of a 
competent teacher, and which will greatly faci- 
litate his progress and future advancement. 

Directions fob Self-Tuition are also 
added, whereby those who have time and op- 
portunity, and possess the necessary powers of 
self-application to acquire the Art of Cutting 
by self-tuition, are directed to the means within 
their reach whereby they may do so. 

Price One Shilling, post free 1/2. 

THREE MONTHS 

AT THE 

Tailor & Cutter Academy 

Prepared specially for Intending 
Students. 

BY AN EX-STUDENT. 

The young; man who enters a Cutting 
Academy or Cutting School, to acquire the 
Art of Cutting, with no previous knowledge of 
a cutting career and knows nothing of the dif- 
ferent steps and stages along which the Art is 
acquired, is at a disadvantage compared with 
him who has had opportunities previously of 
making such a forecast. This want — the 
means of acquiring such knowledge — is now 
supplied by the Treatise we now introduce. 

An ex-stud:mt of ours began writing an 
article on his Course of Tuition at our Aca- 
demy. We considered it so realistic, that we 
induced him to proceed, and embrace in it his 
whole course of tuition, which extended to 



three months. This we now publish for the 
special benefit of intending Students. 

It is a simple ungarnished record of his 
observation, experience and acquirement?, 
during the course of tuition at our Academy. 
Besides being an excellent forecast to any in- 
tending Student — or anyone indeed who pur- 
poses acquiring the Art of Cutting under any 
teacher or circumstances — it contains much on 
the Art of Cutting of considerable practical 
value to any cutter — even to many of mature 
experience. 

This treatise is got up in good style, and is 
printed en good paper, and being prepared 
specially as a Guide to Intending Students to 
our Academy, it is supplied at the nominal 
charge of 

6d., Post Free, 7d. 

THE TAILOR AND CUTTER 

Cutting Class, 

Being a Series of Easy Lessons 

ON THE 

Elementary Principies of Cutting 

These Lessons have been specially prepared 
as a first step for young aspirants acquiring the 
Art of Cutting. To the young and uninitiated, 
works on cutting, at first sight, appear ex- 
tremely vague and complex, and many young 
men are doubtless prevented acquiring the 
Art of Cutting from the apparent difficulties 
that meet them on the threshold. Here is the 
whole Art of Cutting put in the form of very 
simple Lessons, in which the lad or apprentice, 
totally ignorant of Cutting, begins at the A B 
C of the Art, and is brought gradually on by 
easy steps and stages, beginning at the very 
first principles — the whole being adapted to 
the capacity of any apprentice boy. 

An idea of the interesting and instructive 
character of these Lessons may be formed 
when we state that they take the form of a 
Report, relating in full detail the instructions 
of the Teacher, the questions of the Students 
upon obscure points, and the Teacher's replies. 
In this way every possible point which is likely 
to perplex the Student is fully discussed, and 
made intelligible to the humblest capacity. 
The lessons are based upon the principle — 
which is maintained throughout — that it is not 
so much the system that is used as the exereise 
of sound judgment in using it. 

Price 3/6. Post free, 3 7. 

Strongly and Handsomely Bound in 

Cloth, 5/-. Post free, 5/3. 

The Cutter's Guide, 

TO LADIES' GARMENTS. 

A Guide to Alterations in Fitting Ladies' 

Tailor-made Garments. 

Tall and thin figures. 

Short and stout. 

Square shoulders and short necks. 

Sloping shoulders and long necks. 

Creases at the waist. 

A fold right across front. 

Creases down the front shoulder. 

Prominent and flat blades. 

Prominent and flat hips. 

Erect figures. 

Stooping figures. 

Looseness on front edge. 

Creases round neck. 

A Plate of Diagrams also illustimes a 
section of the neck, and giving explicil 
details of the various collars worn or 
Ladies' Garments 

Such a Guide is invaluable to all ladies 
cutters. 

PRICE, Is. 6d. 



Trimmers PracticalGuide 

TO THE CUTTING BOARD. 

In this Guide the Trimmers' various 
duties are fully explained, and copious 
hints given on the special features of very 
nearly every garment a tailor is called 
upon to make. So wide is the scope of 
this Guide that the space at our disposal 
here will not permit us to give a (detailed 
Syllabus. Sections are devoted to' the fol- 
lowing : 

Trimming Principles, 

Business Principles. 

How to Measure for every kind of 

garment inlcuding ladies'. 

General Hints on Trying On, 

The Order Book, Stock Keeping and many 

other things, including a Trouser System. 

After all this comes the work proper." 

Lounges. Clerical Cassock. 

Norfolk Jackets. Naval and Military 
Dress Jackets. Garments 

Footman's Pantry Ladies' Costume. 

Jacket. Riding Habit & TraiD. 

Patrol Jackets. Costume Skirt. 

Smoking Jackets. Jackets. 

Flannel Shirts. Ulsters. 

Chesterfields. Dolmans. 

Inverness Capes. Ladies' Breeches, 
The Scarborough. Trousers, &c. 

Livery Overcoats. Gent's Vests, S. B. 
Police „ and D. B. 

Military „ Washing Vests. 

Naval „ Dress. „ 

Dressing Gowns. Livery , 

Morning Coat. Trousers, Fly Front. 

Shooting Coat. Whole Fall. 

Dress Coat. Working Men's Trou- 
Footman's Coatee. sers. 

Frock Coat. Gent's Breeches. 

Coachman's Frock. Livery Breeches. 

Groom's Frock. Dress Breeches. 

Police Tunics. Cycling Breeches. 

Fireman's Tunic. Knicker. Breeches. 

Military Frock. Loggings. 

Military Tunic. Gaiter.-.. 

Clerical Frock. Sp*ts. 

IN STIFF COYERS, 2s. 9d. 

BOUND IN CLOTH, 3s. 9d. 

Cutters' Practical Guide 

TO THE USE OF MODEL PATTERNS 

For Disproportionate Figures. 

This will be found one of the most 
useful works ever published, as it illus- 
trates by carefully arranged diagrams the 
alteration required for almost every kind 
of abnormality met with. It is a com- 
panion work to the "Cutters' Album" 
and " Trimmers' Practical Guide," by the 
same author, giving just such information 
on difficult subjects which was not treated 
in either of these works. The unusual 
garments are fully dealt with, and its va- 
lue may be better appreciated, when we 
state that it forms a complete work of 
reference to all kinds of garments. Be- 
sides dealing fully with all the current 
fashionable styles of Gents' Garments, it 
embraces Livery, Military, Naval and 
Clerical Dress, Police and Firemen's 
Uniforms, Trouser Variations, &c, toge 
ther with a vast amount of information 
ilmost incredible in such a compact little 
volume. 
In Stiff Cover 2/9. Bound in Cloth 3/9. 



The John Williamson Company Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



ABRIDGED CATALOGUE. 



The Cutters' Album 



THE CUTTER'S 



DEFECTS IN COATS 



AND PRACTICAL 

Guide to the Cutting Room, ! 

Contains every extraordinary gar- j 
ment a cutter in ordinary practice is 
likely to be called upon to cut. A dia- 
gram of each of the garments is given 
in complete form. Each Plate is sup- 
plemented by all necessary instructions 
for cutting, making and trimming each 
garment, and the Album is so arranged 
that the instructions face the diagrams, 
as it lies before the cutter on the board. 
To make the Album still more complete, 
t contains 

Beautifully Engraved Figures 

Which illustrate the whole of the gar- 
ments indicated by the Index, and 
which are shown upon the 20 Plates of 
Diagrams. 

The Album embodies a further acqui- 
sition in the form of 

Diagrams of Four Lays. 

Showing how several coats and com- 
plete suits can be taken out of the cloth 
in the most economical manner. The 
Plates show altogether 

72 Diagrams, and M Figures, 

Illustrating the garments represented by 
the diagrams. 

IN STIFF PAPER COYERS, 2/9. 
NEATLY BOUND IN CLOTH, 3/9. 



Cyclopaedias Alterations j Coats & their Remedies 



As showing the scope of this handbook, we may 

say that it treats very fully and illustratively 

of the alterations for the following : 

HOW TO ALTER FOB 

Long necks, sloping or square shoulders ; 
Stooping figures. Erect figures. Small waisted 
figures. Large waisted figures. Large and small 
shoulders. 

Prominent blades. 

Coat loose at back of waist. 

Looseness at back and sides of forepart. 

Fold across top of back. 

Creases down the front shoulder. 

Tightness at top button. 

Looseness round neck and at top button. 

Three seamers and other coats. 

Creases across top of sideseam. 

Collar standing away from neck. 

Tightness at lower button. 

Large hips. 

Prominent and flat seats. 

Sleeve creasing across top of arm. 

To obtain working man's or easy fitting sleeve. 

Cure a hang backward sleeve. 

Prevent the forearm seam coming too forward 
at hand. 

Vest too short in the back. 

Vest kicking forward at front of waist. 

Vest loose at back scye. [the lap. 

Trousers — To clear away loose cloth out of 

Creases at back of thighs. 

Catching on the knee, and at back of seat in 
getting up stairs. 

LADIES GABMENTS. 

To clear away creases across side. 
To clear away creases across front. 
To clear away creases across the sidebody. 
For full breasts. 
For pufied sleeve heads. 
A tight-fitting lady's sleeve. 
&c, Ac, &c. 

Price 1/6, 



Two Treatises by Mr. John E. 
Leighton & Mr. C. T. Green. 

Being the two First Essays in a Competition for 

two prizes ojfered to the entire trade by the City 

of London Master and Foremen Tailors' 

Society. 

The importance of such a work in connection 
with practical cutting is too apparent to require 
any appeal in its favour. The following index 
of the subjects treated, as well as Defects in 
Coats, to each of which practical remedies are 
given, are all that is required to show the 
practical value of this work to every cutter. 

Price 7/6. Post free, 7/9. 



Reliable Systems i Coats 

TROUSERS AND VESTS. 

" The great want in the Cutting profession 
had hitherto been something simple, reliable and 
practical. It was to meet this that these Re- 
liable Systems were first published, and it 
is the opinion of many who practice them, that 
in these systems the want has been supplied — 

Coat System 10/- ! Trousers System 10/-. 
Yest System 6/6. 

Complete Yolume, handsomely bound, 30/- 
Postage 6d. extra. 

Each System is bound in stiff cover and the 
Complete Volume is handsomely bound in 
ornamental gilt, and bevelled boards. 



THE TAILOR AND CUTTER VOLUMES. 



VOLUME 23. 

The Toxteth Lounge. 

Lounge by Dr. Wampen's Method. 

Chesterfield by ditto. 

Dr. Wampen on Variations. 

The Angulator System. 

Trouser System by C. J. W. 

The Polytechnic Pants. 

Three Systems by the late George Smith. 

Systems for Ladies' Garments, Kiding 

Habit Train, Bodices, Combination 

Garments, &c. 
West End Notes. 
Technical Education. 

&c, &c, &c. 

Price, 12s. 6d., post free. 

VOLUME 24. 

The Angulator System. 

Breeches System, by C. J. W. 

French, English, and American Trouser 

Systems. 
Hunting Breeches. 

Knickerbocker Breeches and Leggings. 
A Lady's Frock Coat. 
Edward Minister's System for Habits. 



Naval Uniforms. 

Tne Cutters' Practical Guide, eight 

articles. 
A visit to the Kill Cupboard. 
Technical Education. 

&c, &c, &c. 

Price 12s. 6d., post free. 



VOLUME 25. 

The Deltoid System. 

The Cutters' Pactical Guide, nine 
articles. 

Systems by Teal Fly. 

Mr. Madeson's Sleeve System. 

Practical Trouser Cutting. 

Dress Vests up to Date. 

Ladies' Systems — Cycling Blouse, Foun- 
dation Skirt, &c. 

Technical Education and Trade Reform. 

The Amalgamation of Master Tailors. 

Notable Men of our Trade. 

The American Delegate in England. 
&c , &c, &c. 



VOLUME 26. 

C. P. G. System, Livery Overcoat System 
„ „ D. B. Reefer. 

„ ,, Clerical Frock. 

,, „ Clerical Dress. 

Cycling Jacket, Lounge. 
„ Norfolk. 

Mr. Hopkins' Coat System. 
System for Working Men's Trousers. 
Big Men's Trousers. 
Cycling Breeches. 
„ Knickers. 
Hearn's System for Breeches and Panta- 
loons. 
Horseshoe Folds — Their Cause and 

Remedy. 
Working Men's Bell-bottom Trousers. 
Selections from Old Authors — Thos. Davy 
„ ,, Thos. Oliver. 

„ ,, David Williams. 

,, „ J. Porter 

Cricketing Shirt. 
West End Movement. 
West End Log. 

&c, &c, &c. 



Price 12s. 6d., post free. 
A LIMITED NUMBER ONLY CAN 



BE 



Price 12s. 6d., post free. 
SUPPLIED. 



-t? 



The John Williamson Company, Limited, 93 & 94 Drury Lane, London, W.C. 



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